1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4.4 Work Package DS : Data Security


This Work Package is split in two parts : DS1 mainly focus on the implementation of access control mechanisms in a real production grid, while DS2 focus on research work in the workflow security.
      1. WP DS1 : From a tool Grid to a production Grid: Access Control and Encryption in the real world


The most important challenge is that on demand of the middleware data on a Grid may be copied outside the home domain of their owner in order to be stored close to some distant computing resource. To respond to these challenges we propose an access control system that is decentralized and where the owners of some data are in control of the permissions concerning their data. Furthermore, we argue that the access control system must support a delegation of rights that is effective immediately. Grid users also need delegation mechanisms to give rights to processes, that act on their behalf. As these processes may spawn sub processes, multi-step delegation must be possible.

In addition to these usability requirements, the transparent storage and replication mechanisms of Grids make it necessary to implement additional protection mechanisms for confidential data. Access control can be circumvented by attackers having access to the physical storage medium. We therefore need encrypted storage mechanisms to enhance the protection of data stored on a Grid.

We propose in this work package to study two aspects : the access control on one side, and data encryption on the other side. We also want to offer something integrated, with the two aspects interconnected.

In the last year, an implementation on a tool grid of Sygn, a distributed access control, and Cryptstore, a distributed encrypted data storage have been demonstrated on a tool grid (µGrid), at the LIRIS laboratory. The behavior of the algorithms has not been tested against a large number of users nor on a high number of storage resources : The scalability is then more theoretical than practical, and thus feedback from real users has not been collected.

Integration of this work in a production Grid such as EGEE is of potential high value for the user communities. Unfortunately, these developments have not been included yet in the middleware. Nevertheless, the LIRIS researchers involved in Sygn and Cryptstore already participate (on a voluntary basis) in the EGEE JRA3 (Security part of the EGEE middleware). This group has adopted the principle of Cryptstore, and will implement a slightly different approach in the EGEE middleware. The principle of Sygn is very different from the VOMS approach, but we think that we can have VOMS as a high level management system for fine grain access control of Sygn (Sygn certificates might be considered as attributes of VOMS).

As a conclusion of this sub work package WP DS1, we believe that : The integration of high level data security is mandatory. The existing tools in the production Grids are not sufficient. Our proposal is clearly feasible in a production grid such as EGEE.


      1. WP DS2 : Workflow Security


In this WP, we propose to investigate access control for workflow management systems (WMS) in computational environments. In order to make grids an option for wider use, grid resources need to support WMS. Some applications (biomedical, business world) requires confidentiality of certain data, the possibility of accounting for the use of shared resources and control over how and when resources are used. This makes it necessary to integrate access control mechanisms into a business oriented Grid-WMS. The complexity of such an approach is due to the cooperative and decentralized nature of a Grid, which makes it necessary to combine policies from different possibly overlapping, domains in order to arbitrate a multitude of interests and reach unified access control decisions.

The problem of integrating access control mechanisms in a WMS on a Grid raises a considerable number of interesting scientific and technological, but also social issues.

A number of those challenges come from the Grid environment, with its dynamic sets of available resources and/or user community constitution. The cross-organizational structure of a Grid makes it necessary to combine different domains to reach access control decisions.

The workflow management environment is responsible for different challenges, such as the need to base access control decisions on contextual information (e.g. time, current task in the workflow, previous accomplishment of other workflow tasks). Dynamic access constraints need to be enforced (e.g. a person that has created an order may not be the person that approves this order). As workflows involve detailed task descriptions with fine grain resources involved in every step, the access control system must be able to control these resources at the same fine grain level. For example in a health-care scenario when a medical doctor accesses a patient's file, he may only be allowed to work on the parts dealing with his domain and not on other parts of the same file.

Grid access control and workflow access control each for themselves are current areas of scientific interest. Our novel contribution will be to solve the challenges arising from the combination of both. The first challenge is to enforce cross-organizational security policies in a heterogeneous, dynamic resource sharing environment. The second challenge is the dependence of access control on contextual information, taking into account dynamic constraints and the ability of fine grained control. Further challenges may arise during the requirements studies in the first phases of the project.

At an international scale, we will cooperate with the KTH at Stockolm on this theme, with who we have already a collaboration (one LIRIS PhD will be in PostDoc there next year – beginning in september 2005).

This sub work package WP DS2 is clearly more exploratory than the first one, and will need more investigation. It will be done in strong cooperation with the applications who will detail first their typical workflows, and their modeling.

5.4 Efficient access to the data

Query optimization, in any type of database system is basically to determine, in a considered search space and for a given query, an execution plan close to optimum (or optimum). Optimality of the execution plan among the alternatives is predicted through the estimations produced by the cost model which mostly combines the statistics on the base data and estimations on the runtime information into an overall metric. Availability of the dependable statistics and runtime information become critical issues since optimization is only as good as its cost estimates [Oza 05]. In this perspective, various solutions to the cost estimate problem have been proposed [Ada 96, Du 92, Gar 96, Zhu 03]. Whatever the solution of the cost model is, the statistics stored in the database catalog are subject to obsolescence notably, so, it is very difficult to estimate the processing and communication costs during the compile time in large-scale heterogeneous databases. Hence, in [Ive 04, Ham 02, Ham 04, Kab 98, Kha 00] centralized dynamic optimization methods are proposed in order to react to estimation errors (i.e. variation between the parameters estimated at compile-time and the parameters computed at run-time) and resources unavailability (i.e. data, CPU, memory, networks). In large-scale heterogeneous database, the centralization of dynamic optimization methods generates a bottleneck and produces a relatively significant message passing on the network and prevent the scalability. Therefore, we suggest to leaning on a programming model on base of mobile agents. This theme corresponds to that of the ACI “Masses de données 2004” Gene Medical GRID: architecture for the management and the analysis of gene-medical data on computing GRID (http://liris.cnrs.fr/PROJETS/ggm)

Related WP: Query optimization

Related applications: earth science, bioinfoormatics

4.4.3 Privacy-Preserving Data Integration and Sharing

Data integration and sharing have been a long standing challenge for the database community. The six white papers on future research directions published by the database community from 1989-2003 acknowledged the growing need for integrating and sharing data from multiple sources [3, 6, 7, 5, 4, 1]. This need has become critical in numerous contexts, including integrating data on the Web and at enterprises, building e-commerce market places, sharing data for scientific research, data exchange at government agencies and monitoring health crises. Unfortunately, data integration and sharing are hampered by legitimate and widespread privacy concerns. Companies could exchange information to boost productivity gains, but are prevented by fear of being exploited by competitors or antitrust concerns [2]. Sharing healthcare data could improve scientific research, but the cost of obtaining consent to use individually identifiable information can be prohibitive. Sharing healthcare and consumer data enables early detection of disease outbreak [8], but without provable privacy protection it is difficult to extend these surveillance measures nationally or internationally. The continued exponential growth of distributed data in all aspects of our life could further fuel data integration and sharing applications, but may also be stymied by a privacy backlash. It has become critical to develop techniques to enable the integration and sharing of data without losing privacy.

This project brings an integrated research plan to the above problem. We want to achieve the widespread integration and sharing of data, especially in domains of priorities, while allowing

the end users to easily and effectively control their privacy. Toward this end, our research goal is to develop a comprehensive framework that handles the fundamental problems underlying privacy-preserving data integration and sharing, then apply and evaluate the above framework in our application domains. It is important to emphasize at the outset that our research is related to, but significantly different from, research on privacy-preserving data mining. Privacy-preserving data mining deals with gaining knowledge after integration problems are solved. We will develop a framework and methods for performing such integration, as well as understanding and managing privacy for a wider range of types of information sharing. The challenge here is how can we develop a privacy framework for data integration that is flexible and clear to the end users? This demands understandable and provably consistent definitions for building a privacy policy, as well as standards and mechanisms for enforcement.

References

[1] S. Abiteboul, R. Agrawal, P. A. Bernstein, M. Carey, S. Ceri, B. Croft, D. J. DeWitt, M. J. Franklin, H. Garcia-Molina, D. Gawlick, J. Gray, L. Haas, A. Halevy, J. M. Hellerstein, Y. Ioannidis, M. Kersten, M. Pazzani, M. Lesk, D. Maier, J. F. Naughton, H. Schek, T. Sellis, A. Silberschatz, M. Stonebraker, R. Snodgrass, J. D. Ullman, G. Weikum, J. Widom, and S. Zdonik, The lowell database research self assessment," http://research.microsoft.com/ Gray Lowell, 2003.

[2] J. Bandler, How seagoing chemical haulers may have tried to divide market," The Wall Street Journal, p. A1, Feb. 20 2003.

[3] P. Bernstein, U. Dayal, D. J. DeWitt, D. Gawlick, J. Gray, M. Jarke, B. G. Lindsay, P. C. Lockemann, D. Maier, E. J. Neuhold, A. Reuter, L. A. Rowe, H.-J. Schek, J. W. Schmidt, M. Schrefl and M. Stonebraker. Future directions in dbms research - the laguna beach participants, SIGMOD Record, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 17-26, 1989.

[5] P. A. Bernstein, M. L. Brodie, S. Ceri, D. J. DeWitt, M. J. Franklin, H. Garcia-Molina, J. Gray, G. Held, J. M. Hellerstein, H. V. Jagadish, M. Lesk, D. Maier, J. F. Naughton, H. Pirahesh, M. Stonebraker, and J. D. Ullman. The asilomar report on database research," SIGMOD Record, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 74-80, 1998.

[5] A. Silberschatz and S. B. Z. et. al. Strategic directions in database systems - breaking out of the box, ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 764-778, 1996.

[6] A. Silberschatz, M. Stonebraker, and J. D. Ullman. Database systems: Achievements and opportunities," CACM, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 110-120, 1991.

[7] Database research: Achievements and opportunities into the 21st century, SIGMOD Record, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 52-63, 1996.

[8] F.-C. Tsui, J. U. Espino, V. M. Dato, P. H. Gesteland, J. Hutman, and M. M. Wagner. Technical description of RODS: A real-time public health surveillance system, J Am Med Inform Assoc, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 399-408, Sept. 2003.

4.5 WP5 Earth Sciences

4.5.1 Motivation

Earth Science covers many domains related to the solid Earth, the Ocean, the Atmosphere and their interfaces. The volume and the quality of the observations are increasing due to global and permanent networks as well as satellites. The result is a vast amount of data sets and databases, all distributed among different countries and organizations. The investigation of such data is limited to some sub-sets. As a matter of fact, all those data cannot be explored completely due on one hand to the limitation in local computer and storage power, and on the other hand to the lack of tools adapted to handle, control and analyse efficiently so large sets of data.

Furthermore, many national and international programmes - both research and operational – in different domains aim to develop large-scale frameworks for monitoring and analysis of earth-system interactions in order to better understand and predict prevailing conditions (now casting as well as long term prediction). This kind of application implies the integration of cross-domain scientific data in large-scale simulation modelling that is necessary for example to improve long-range weather and environmental forecasting, etc. They could also imply software platforms including web services. Civil sector applications bring two classes of requirements: the first concerning short-term forecasting of risks (e.g. of pollution, earthquakes, thunderstorms, hurricanes, volcano eruptions), and the second concerning long-term forecasts for climatic trends. Both require quick access to large distributed datasets and high performance computing resources.

Grid technology has started to increase the accessibility to computing resources. Earth Science has explored the grid technology via European projects such as DataGrid and EGEE in different domains to test the possibility to deploy their applications on a larger scale. The next step will be to develop, chain and port more complex applications, which will lead to original results and new computing paradigms. The tools needed are mainly beyond the skill of any ES laboratories; however the tools will be surely the result of collaboration with computer teams.

WP 5 Earth Observation

4.5.2- Project description

In the following part, our needs will be illustrated with three different applications instead of speaking generally. These applications may be considered as testbeds for new developments.

Application 1) Ozone in polar zone (S. Godin-Beekmann, IPSL/Service d’Aéronomie)

2006 will be the International year of Ozone. One goal is the prediction, in quasi-real time, of the ozone concentration in the polar zone. The same scenario will be used to determine the trend of the ozone concentration, since 1980, in both Arctic and Antarctic zone during winter time, period during which the destruction has taken place.

For each day during winter time since 1980, the computation of ozone concentration will be achieved by running a simulation in both polar areas, Arctic and Antarctic. That simulation is based on:


  1. A chemical-transport model using the daily meteorological outputs from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting), ERA40, and

  2. The output of another simulation for the initialization.

The result outputs will be the winter daily concentrations of around 10 constituents, involved in the ozone photochemistry. The corresponding files will be stored and compared to the available simultaneous measurements obtained with different satellite instruments.

In order to select the case where the activation of chlorine compounds, responsible for the ozone destruction, is observed on satellite data, data mining on these sets of data will be very useful.

As all the data needed in this application are already available, the simulations and the data mining can be conducted independently. A simulation concerns the whole winter period and a given pole. As a consequence the simulations for the different years and pole areas are independent and can run simultaneously on different CPUs, being a typical application to be deployed on a grid. For the prediction in quasi-real time, the concerned ECMWF and satellite data are to be first searched on external servers.

All the different operations can be ported manually; however the aim is to integrate these complex operations of ozone destruction into a platform that can routinely provide a prediction in quasi-real time.

Application 2) Analysis of oceanic multi-sensor and multi-satellite images (C. Provost, LOCEAN, IPSL)

Satellite data provide different parameters over the ocean, like sea surface temperature, ocean color, surface winds, sea surface height with increasing spatial and temporal resolution(i.e. 1 km and 1day)… A variety of studies have been carried out, often limited in the number of addressed cases by the large volume of the files and their number. Some sub-sets have been analysed by data mining using a classification method in order to determine regions with the same characteristics and to observe their evolution as a function of time. Some structures, like large gradient variation, filamental structures have been searched and compared. One difficulty is the presence of clouds that mask or provide erroneous values. Most of the data are available on external servers and can be downloaded via web interface.

The possibility to deploy the data mining on all the satellite data and images available is the challenge. The applications may be divided into different goals:


The tests or limited studies have pointed out the originality of the research and the potentiality of new results.

Application 3) Seismic hazard analysis (J.-P. Vilotte, IPG Paris)

Integration of physics-based models of Earthquakes within information infrastructures provides enormous benefit for assessing and mitigating earthquake risks through seismic hazards analysis. Modern seismic information system should in a short time locate regional earthquakes, determine the earthquake mechanism and produce preliminary maps of ground shaking and deformations by integrating seismologic, geodetic and geological data. Today earthquakes are routinely recorded in quasi real time all around the Globe by global broadband seismological networks.

For each earthquake of magnitude greater or equal to 6, seismologic records on a selected number of stations have to be automatically retrieved from distributed seismologic data collections and selected based on some quality data analysis. At this stage the seismic hazard analysis must include three interconnected pathways:


The aim of the present project is to integrate these complex pathways of seismic hazard analysis into an information system that can routinely process typically between 10-20 earthquakes each year in a short time.

WP 4.5.3- Main Issues

3.1 Metadata and data

A particular characteristic of ES applications is the need to access both metadata and data. The metadata catalogue permits to select the files corresponding to some given criteria. The RDBS used varies from an application to another. The ones generally used are MySQL, PostgreSQL and Oracle. Recently, metadata base is being developed with geospatial information, like the footprint of satellite orbit, by using MySQL and PostgreSQL. For a given experiment, several metadata catalogues may correspond to the same product, obtained with different instruments or algorithms. This problem has been addressed by separate metadata bases distributed on separate external servers, some of them controlled by OGSA-DAI.

Access controls, restriction and security are needed on both metadata and data. Data may be confidential and/or accessible only for a given group of users and for a given period of time, for example, until publication of some new results. Data access policy varies depending on the origin of the data and time of production. Some products can be made freely available on the web after two years (having informed the data producer and proposed him to be co-author or acknowledged only), while other products may be used free of charge for scientific but with charge for industrial and commercial purposes. Certain types of products, e.g. European satellite data, are only made available to users working on approved projects.  In some cases, a personalized accounting has to be set up in order to know the users and make them paying if needed. As a consequence, the ES application community needs secure and restricted access to both metadata and data, although encryption is not required.

It is therefore necessary to be able to define access rules and capabilities at the level of group and subgroup in a virtual organisation, and provide an accounting to know the user and make it paying if needed.

3.2 Information system

So far, the metadata, data and algorithms are mainly used by scientists that are experts in the domain. In some larger applications, especially where there is integration of cross-domain scientific data, information system will be useful. Information system will also permit to make decision to choose the right path for an application. Some examples follow for seismology but the need has come for other applications:

Knowledge representation and reasoning techniques: to manage the heterogeneity of the models and to capture the relationships between the physical processes and the algorithms, the algorithms and the simulation and data inversion codes. Digital library technology with knowledge-based data management tools to access existing various data catalogues, and to incorporate collections of data generated by physics-based simulations. Interactive knowledge acquisition techniques for the Grid to enable users to configure computational and storage resources; as well as to select and deploy appropriate simulation and data inversion integrating seismologic, geodetic (GPS, InSAR satellite image) and geologic data sets.

3.3 Data mining

The need of efficient Data mining tools is shown in the Ocean application; however it is present in the other applications. It will be useful not only to long term exploration but also to select data for real-time application.

WP 4.5.4- Community and expertise involved

The persons involved in this proposal are some of the scientists of the Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL) and of the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), part of the ES community. They have been involved in Grid projects, DataGrid and EGEE. They have ported applications on Earth Observation by satellite and Seismology. On the Jussieu Campus they have a close collaboration and share the same EGEE node. M. Petitdidier (IPSL) has been the coordinator of Earth Science applications in EGEE

.

The application “Earth Observation” has acquired an expertise and experience about metadata bases using the RDBS, MySQL, on Grid. As a matter of fact, to validate data it is necessary to look for satellite data located in an area around the ground-based sites. 7 years of satellite ozone profiles were produced/or ported on EGEE, they represent 38 500 files per algorithm; 2 algorithms being tested completely i.e. 77 000 files, another partially but using a different way to store the data i.e. 78 000 files. The validation has been carried out by selected the satellite ozone profiles located over a given site by queries addressed to the corresponding metadata bases. In DataGrid the databases are first located on a server outside the Grid infrastructure. Then a replica metadata catalogue, part of the middleware, was tested with and without VOMS. In EGEE the metadata bases are located on a server outside EGEE with an access control provided by OGSA-DAI. We have not yet tested the capability of the new version of the middleware, gLite. Recently, Geospatial information are introduced in the metadata to determine the footprint of the orbits and then to facilitate the search of profiles in a given area.

One of the application “Seismology” involved complex simulation in MPI, that run with 4 CPUS as well as with thousand of CPUs, according its complexity. The other application has been an application on alert when a major earthquake occurs. The Grid permits to have enough resources to have the results in the framework of one day.

4.5.5. Expected results and impact

In order to explore new fields by developing the application at a large scale, ES needs to benefit of new informatics tools or architecture, if existing or to be developed.

The points that are important are the following:


Some of these expected results may lead to use semantic mediation, and create warehouse.

The applications chosen as testbeds are very generic in ES community. Then the impact of solutions to those blocking points in ES domains will lead to very new results and efficiency to answer relevant questions.

4.6 WP Life sciences

4.6.1 Project description

The awarness of grid technologies in the health comunity has increasingly raised in the past five years. Although there was a priori few interest for computing technologies in this comunity, the needs for large data manipulation and analysis has lead to identify areas where applications can highly benefit from a grid infrastructure. Early in the European DataGrid project (2001-2004, http://www.edg.org/), the biomedical applications have been identified has a pilot area for steering grid development and testing grid infrastructures. In the same time, the international comunity has been increasingly active in the area of grids for health as demonstrate the multiple conferences (see HealthGrid, http://www.healthgrid.org/, or Biogrid, http://www.cse.uconn.edu/~huang/BioGrid-05/ , for examples) and research program appearing (see MEDIGRID, http://www.creatis.insa-lyon.fr/MEDIGRID/, or BIRN, http://www.nbirn.org/, for example).

The biomedical applications area is one of the two pilot application fields considered in the EGEE project. It has demonstrated the relevance of grids for that kind of application with the deployment of more than a dozen of applications in the fields of medical image analysis, bioinformatics and molecular structure analysis in a production environment. In all these fields, the current acquisition devices enable the acquisition of tremendous amount of data. Usually, the data produced are stored locally, on-site, and data exchanges are limited or require a human intervention. In the worst cases, data is just lost by lack of storage resources. The pilots deployed in the EGEE project could benefit from the grid capabilities to distribute, store, share, and process such data.

4.6.2 Applications to medical image analysis

Medical images analysis requires image processing algorithms that are often costly and which complexity usually depends on the size of the processed images. Although the analysis of a couple of medical images is usually tractable on a standard desktop computer today, larger computing needs are expressed by many emerging applications such as statistical studies or epidemiology for which full image databases need to be processed and analyzed, human body modeling, knowledge databases assembling for assisted diagnosis, etc.

Beyond the need for computing power, the medical data management is crucial for many medical application and raises the most challenging issues. The medical data is distributed by nature overt the various sites participating to its acquisition. It represents tremendous amounts of data: a simple radiological department will produce more than 10 TB of data each year. This leads to a yearly production over the country of more than 1 PB, most of which is simply not archived in a numeric format by lack of storage infrastructure.

The grid infrastructure and the middleware services are expected to ease application development by providing tools suitable for medical data management. It should ensure a coupling between data management and processings, taking into account the complex structure and sensitivity of medical data.

2.1. Main Issues

The needs of medical image processing are complex both in terms of processing and data manipulation. Simple batch-oriented systems used for cluster computing are often not flexible enough. Medical applications may deal with a very large number of individually short tasks (for which classical batch computing is inducing a too high overhead), with complex application workflows, with emergency situations, or with interactive applications.

In terms of data management, medical images have to be considered in conjunction with associated medical data (patient related metadata, image acquisition metadata...). A physician cannot produce a medical diagnosis on the base of an image alone: he needs to take into account all the patient folder (context, history...). The medical data structure is very complex and there are few standards for enabling data exchanges, when they are used at all. Enacting indexation and search of medical images are therefore crucial to face the increasing volume of medical image data produced.

Most medical data is sensitive and the identification of persons from whom the data originates should only be possible for a very limited number of accredited end users. Although security enabling techniques may be well known (data encryption, pseudonimisation, ...), the security policies expression and their enactment is a complex problem. On a grid infrastructure, this problem is even more complex due to the distribution of data and (on sites shared by many application areas where site administrators are not necessarily accredited to access medical data) and the wide extension if the users community.

Many medical image analysis applications are require a human supervision with a more or less high degree of interactivity. This introduces specific constraints on the submission procedure as feedback must be fast enough for a human users to interact with the running remote processes. Moreover, medical image analysis procedures are often assembled from basic software components by building complex workflows. The easy representation and the efficient execution of such workflows is a key to the success of these applications. Given the size of the data to be manipulated, data transfer are costly and the scheduling of workflow needs to take into account the dependencies on data and data location in order to efficiently user the grid resources.

3. Application to Bioinformatics

Understanding biological data produced by large-scale discovery project, as complete genome sequencing projects, is one of major challenges in Bioinformatics. These data are published into several international databases. Thus, bioinformaticians need, for most analyses, an efficient access to these updated biological data integrated to relevant algorithms. Today, this integration has been done in several bioinformatics centers with web portal technology. But the size of these data is doubling each year, and scalability problems are now appearing. Grid computing could be a viable solution to distribute and integrate these genomics data and bioinformatics algorithms. But these software programs have different computing behaviours that the graid can suit: access to large data file such as sequence banks, long computation time, part of a workflow, …

2.1. Main Issues

Biological data represent huge datasets of different nature, from different sources, with heterogeneous model. They can be protein three-dimensional structure, functional signature, gene expression signal, … And to store and analyzed these data with computing tools, they have to be translated into different type such as (i) alphabetical for genes and proteins, (ii) numerical, for structural data from Xray crystallography or NMR, or (iii) imaging for 2D-gel.

All these data are then analyzed, cross-checked to databanks, used to predict other ones, published into scientific journals (and papers are also cross-linked to biological data), or into world-wide databanks

An important specificity of biological data is that these databanks have to be kept up-to-date periodically. These updates mean that the banks will have a new major or minor release number, but have to be available exactly on the same way than before: under the same filename, under the same index in a DMBS, … Moreover, some data are dependant of others: for example, pattern and profile for sites and functional signatures are built on the multiple alignment of a whole protein family. Then, due to the daily publication of new data, the data link to the new data need also to be updated. For example, the discovery of a new protein belonging to an existing protein family, or the correction of an old one, will modify the sequence alignment of the family, and then the pattern or the profile could be affected by this new data. In the last years, the world-wide databanks like Swiss-Prot ,TrEMBL, GenBank or EMBL have doubled the volume of their data each year

The grid infrastructure and the middleware services are expected to ease application development by providing tools suitable for biological data management. It should ensure a coupling between contents and tools integration, taking into account the complex structure and sensitivity of medical data, as in medical imaging.

3.2. Community and expertise involved

The bioinformatics user community already deployed a significant number of applications in the framework of the EGEE project, among which can be cited:



The community is composed of application developers with an informatics and/or biological background, bringing a very high expertise level. An enlargement of the user community to biologists is expected in the coming years through for example Web portals.

3.3. Timeline

M3 : share expertise and schema for biological data and bioinformatics tools

M12 : biological databases for protein sequence analysis used as models for the content integration on the platform

M24 : bioinformatics software programs integrated on the infrastructure on top of the security and workflow services

M36 : production of scientific results and report on security and workflows.

4. Collaboration within the project

The GATE, SiMRI3D, gPTM3D, bronze standard, GPS@ and docking platform applications mentioned above are developed by French partners (LPC, CREATIS, LRI-LAL, I3S and IBCP) already interacting and working together inside the EGEE biomedical applications activity (5 FTEs funded for the whole Biomedical activity). The French federation is leading the biomedical applications activity inside the EGEE project and the experience with grid technologies in this area is very high. Moreover, many thematic research are lead by partners participating to the ACI-GRID or ACI-MD programs such as ACI-GRID MEDIGRID and GriPPS, ACI-MD AGIR and GEDEON

5. Expected results and impact

The aims of the medical image analysis community will be to:



Consequently, the results expected are:

2.2. Community and expertise involved

The medical image analysis user community already deployed a significant number of applications in the framework of the EGEE project, among which can be cited:



The community is composed of application developers with an informatics background, working with medical partners bringing their expert knowledge on the clinical needs. Given the number of projects currently being developed, the expertise level is very high. Some of the application are reaching the point of being put in production and an enlargement of the user community to medical end-users is expected in the coming years in some fields.

4.6.3 Collaboration within the project

The GATE, SiMRI3D, gPTM3D and bronze standard applications mentioned above are developed by French partners (LPC, CREATIS, LRI-LAL, and I3S respectively) already interacting and working together inside the EGEE biomedical applications activity (5 FTEs funded). The French federation is leading the biomedical applications activity inside the EGEE project and the experience with grid technologies in this area is very high. Moreover, many thematic research are lead by partners participating to the ACI-GRID or ACI-MD programs such as the MEDIGRID project (http://www.creatis.insa-lyon.fr/MEDIGRID, participants: CREATIS and LIRIS), or the AGIR project (http://www.aci-agir.org/, participants: LRI, I3S, CREATIS).

4.6.4 Expected results and impact

The aims of the medical image analysis community will be to:



Consequently, the results expected are:

4.6.5 Timeline

M3 : share expertise and medical data schema

M12 : medical image databases

M24 : application enabled on the infrastructure on top of the security and workflow services

M36 : production of scientific results and report on security and workflows.

WP 4.7 Astrophysics

WP 4.8 Grid computing applied to particle physics

4.8.1 Motivations of the community

Since now several years the particle physics community plays a major role in the development of the grid computing. The high level motivation of this community is driven by the nearby start-up of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN and the data taking of the four associated experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. In these experiments, the collision rate will grow from 100 million per second in 2007 up to 1 billion per second in 2010. The highly sophisticated trigger electronics of the experiments will select about 100 events per second of high physics interest. The amount of produced raw data remains nevertheless at a level of 10 to 15 peta bytes per year which is several levels of magnitude above the one reached in any previous experiment.

4.8.2 Description of the foreseen computing models

In order to overcome the LHC challenge, the particle physicists have decided to join the LHC Computing Grid (LCG) [Hep01] project putting together there computing and storage resources located all over the world in Europe, Asia and America. Since the aim of the LCG project is to deploy the grid infrastructure needed to reconstruct, analyse and simulate the four LHC data, LCG has a strong connection to the Enabling Grid for E-sciencE (EGEE) [Hep02] project. The LCG project participates strongly to the development of the EGEE grid software (middleware) and as a consequence uses heavily the EGEE middleware for its implementations. Similarly to EGEE, the physics collaboration users (physicists and software engineers) are grouped into virtual organisations (V0) which have in charge the development of the applications needed to treat the detector data.

To meet the demands of LHC data analysis, a particular form of hierarchical Grid has been proposed as the appropriate architecture by the computing models [Hep03]. The LHC data are distributed and treated in computing centres, located all over the world and the proposed hierarchy consists of four levels of resources noted from Tier-0 to Tier-3. The Tier-0 facility, localized at CERN, is responsible for the archival and the pre-processing of the raw data coming from the detector event filters. After pre-processing, the data are sent to Tier-1 facilities (from 6 to 10 depending on the experiment) located all around the world and having a mass storage strong enough to store a large fraction of the data. In order to guaranty the raw data archives they are mirrored on tape between Tier-1 facilities. The activities of the Tier-1 facilities will be the reconstruction of the raw data as soon as need calibration constants will become available. The reconstruction software will produce the Event Data Summary (ESD) and the reduced Analysis Oriented Data (AOD). The AOD’s are copied to the all Tier-2 facilities localised at a regional level and used by a community of about 20 to 100 physicists to analyse the data. At the same time the Tier-2 facilities are foreseen to produce the simulated events needed to make the analysis tasks and those data are archived at the Tier-1 facilities. Tier-2 facilities will not have any expensive and heavy to operate mass storage equipped with magnetic tapes so all data will stay on disks. Finally, Tier-3 facilities located at the laboratory level will be used in order to make the last analysis steps needed for physic results publication. They could be made of just the physicist laptops or an online analysis cluster.

The organization of computing resources in a Grid hierarchy provides the following important advantages : resources will be presented as part of a unified system, allowing optimal data distribution, scalable growth and efficient network use.

Actually the LCG grid prototype is manly used during the data challenge (DC) periods to run the simulations, the reconstruction and more recently the analysis jobs for the four LHC experiments. At each new DC the amount of processed data increases significantly in order to approach more and more the LHC real conditions. Other periods called service challenges (SC) are reserved to tests the throughput of the network and the newly developed data transfer tools. Many steps have been achieved but tests under real conditions of usage of the LCG grid, where all Tier facilities will do there specific job at the same time, have not been performed yet. This will need much more resources than existing right now both in storage space and in computing power.

One should also note de global tendency in the whole community to migrate to the grid computing model. In order to profit from this emerging tool, the particle physics collaborations from the BaBar, CDF, Dzero and Zeus experiments have decided to adapt there software to the grid.

4.8.3 Main issues to be addressed

The reconstruction and summarizing of the raw data under the AOD format will reduce the event size by almost a factor 20. Nevertheless disk storage needed in the Tier-2 facility stays very high. A mean Tier-2 facility used by the four LHC experiments will need in 2007 around 400 Tb. In 2012, after 5 years of data taking the needed space will grow up to 5.3 Pb. Building such a large disk storage capacity is a real challenge. To achieve the performance optimization of such a device it will necessary to solve serious and complex software and hardware problems. On the other hand, due to the continuous increasing of the network throughput it will be soon possible to join the resources of geographically close laboratory in order to build easier new Tier-2 facilities. Since in France the efforts have been concentrated on the setup of a Tier-1 centre in Lyon1, we are rather late and short in terms of Tier-2 facilities and so this opportunity is for us of first importance.

The simulation work in the Tier-2 facilities will not be a problem as long as the network between them and Tier-1 facilities is maintained at the requested level. The work is usually planed and the jobs are mainly computing power consuming. This part of the work together with the data transfer from Tier-0 to Tier-1 will be tested in the next SC3 service challenge.

The analysis work will be much more complicated. There will the coexistence of both chaotic analysis activities induced by the physicist work and more planed analysis work induced by the physics working groups. The analysis work will be based on high level hierarchical data (MetaData) describing the main physics characteristic of the events like missing transverse momentum, isolated lepton Energy-momentum and so on. For certain type of physics analysis (low statistics) the first step of analysis will consist in filtering the data in order to extract a small sub sample containing the interesting events. For other analysis the interesting signal will be large and the whole data set will be accessed by the analysis operations. This later type of analysis will be impossible to realize if the performances of the developed storage elements are not high enough. It is therefore of first importance that the evaluation of the technical solutions foreseen to realise the Tier-2 storages are tested in real conditions.

As a consequence, the realisation on a efficient large disk storage element for the Tier-2 facilities will be the main issue to be addressed by this project.

4.8.4 community (and expertise involved)

Both the LCG and EGEE experts from about 7 French particle physics laboratory and there associated technical staff (software engineers) will bring there knowledge and tools to the realization of this project. At the same time the grid user community in that laboratory is growing very fast due to the close LHC start up. The feedback provided by several hundreds of users will be of first importance for the software experts to understand and improve the efficiency of such a large and complex system.

4.8.4.1 collaboration within the project

Due to the specific partnership between the Tier-2 and the Tier-1 facilities, but also because of the relationship between Tier-2 facilities which have to face common problems, the LCG and EGEE collaborations play a central role in this project. In addition to that some partners of this project have already started to work together in order to build common Tier-2 facilities which are located close but physically separated.

In addition to the LCG internal collaboration and based on our specific computing models, we can identify collaboration themes with computing scientists where the volume of our data and variety of treatments like reconstruction, simulation and analysis will be both a challenge for us and an interesting subject of study for them. Some the one we can think of are :


WP 4.8.5 expected results and impact

The main expected result will be the realisation of an efficient and scalable disk storage element for the Tier-2 facilities. It is of first importance for us that the French LCG community made up his lateness with respect to our close European partners. At the same time we expect that this project, involving researcher in many fields will be fruitful for all of us due to the exchange we could have on many subject like for example the different data treatment techniques, both at the level of the algorithms and the statistical methods.

6) Milestones and deliverables for the following deadlines

M12 : 20% of disk space available and 1Gbit/s connection available between Tier-2 and Tier-1 facilities. Feedback from SC3 service challenge and first use of new file transfer and file system tools.

M24 : 100% disk space available. Test of final tool in SC4 service challenge and processing of first data taken during commissioning period using the final tools.

M36 : First year of data taking, processing and analysis. Feedback from final grid performance in real condition will be available with data from one year of observation.

References:

[Hep01] LCG home Page

http://lcg.web.cern.ch/LCG

[Hep02] EGEE home Page

http://egee-intranet.web.cern.ch/egee-intranet/gateway.html

[Hep03] The LHC experiment computing models:

http://www.gridpp.ac.uk/eb/ComputingModels


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Workplan - Mass of data Applied to Grids: Instrumentation and Experimentations

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Workplan



T0-T0+6

T0+6-T0+12

T0+12-T0+24

T0+24-T0+36

WP1.1

Initial experiments with R-GMA

Interaction with WP “semantic mediation”



Monitoring software design

Database schema

Portal design


Monitoring software deployment

Database population



Database population

Extensions



WP1.2

Interaction with WP1.1

Exploitation of existing databases: Fault classification



Interaction with WP1.1

Exploitation of existing databases: user access patterns



Locality analysis

Grid models

WP2

Interaction with applications

Interaction with WP “semantic mediation”



Centre of expertise start-up

Specification of a NoE PASCAL data challenge



Centre of expertise production

Participation to SC analysis challenge



Centre of expertise production



































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