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"I endeavoured to conform in my religious instruction to the letter and spirit of the Holy Scriptures, and could not avoid alluding to the defectiveness and emptiness of the synagogue ceremonial, as taught in the Talmud and the Jewish code 'Shulchan Aruch.'

"This course was complained of before the chief rabbi of the district; and for my own security, I requested the Government that the rabbi be instructed to superintend the religious instruction of my school, and to subject it to one or two examinations annually. Mr. Bing, the chief rabbi, however, begged to be excused from doing so, stating that my religious instruction did not please him. The Government then demanded of the rabbi either to propose one of the existing religious compendiums as a text-book for schools, or else to write one himself.

"The rabbi offered to do the latter. In the third year of my public services, the Government sent me to the town of Heidingsfeld, and before leaving Höchburg, I received a testimonial from the royal[495] school-inspector of the district, expressing the satisfaction my labours had given to the Government.

"I had been nearly two years in the school at Höchburg, when the Government sent me, and all other Jewish teachers of the kingdom, the new text-book of the Mosaic religion which the rabbinical candidate, Dr. Alexander Behr, had written, under the surveillance and direction of the chief rabbi, Mr. Abraham Bing, and which the rabbi at Fürth, and many other influential Jewish ecclesiastics, had adopted; Government signifying at the same time that it was the desire of His Majesty the King to have this book introduced in all Jewish schools. I received joyfully this book, which promised to meet the urgent necessities of the schools. But I was doomed to severe disappointment; the 160 octavo pages which this volume contains, were almost entirely filled with ceremonial laws, treating of phylacteries, inscriptions, fringes, circumcisions, meats, the prohibition of shaving, the creed, &c. Not a word, and much less an exposition of morality, of conscience, of virtue, of holiness, of the condition and destiny of man.

"In that portion of the book which treats of God, there was an entire omission of His power, His wisdom, His goodness, His mercy and holiness, and of all the lessons derived from these attributes and perfections. Not even the Decalogue found a place in this work.

"The Messiah (as well as many other similar predictions) it explained to signify a period of time when all men should know God and serve Him.[496]

"I directed the attention of the Government to this dead skeleton, shewing that I could not receive this book as my guide in religious instruction. I prayed for permission to follow my own course of instruction, and pledged myself to have my lessons printed and submitted to the chief rabbi.

"My petition was granted; and this was the beginning of trouble. My book on the 'Confirmation of Israelites' followed in 1829. It was the more gladly received by the public, since I confirmed all my positions by quotations from the Talmud, which I translated literally. The second volume, which I published in 1835, under the title of the 'Tree of Life,' was as kindly received. Both these books continue as standards in many schools of various countries, and prove that even the Talmudists of the third, fourth, and fifth centuries drank from the evangelical source of life. In like manner also, 'The Confession of Faith of the Israelites,' as delineated in my works, the 'Confirmation,' pages 140-46, and the 'Tree of Life,' pages 226-243, remain in full credit among the Jews to this day, nor have the rabbis ventured to say ought against it, although it refers to the New Testament both in the text itself and in the notes.

"Five-and-twenty years have I been openly inculcating these principles in my schools and in the synagogues, and never have either the Jewish deputies delegated by the Government to attend my public examinations, nor the great number of Jews who assisted on such occasions, uttered an objection; this is a proof that my religious principles were not a[497] baseless fabric, or, as is too often the case in the statements of our rabbis, the result of mere whim or conjecture.

"The kindly, but often misconstrued feelings of His Majesty, Ludovic I., towards the Jews of his realm, which had been manifested by his establishment of national schools for them, by the appointment of regularly educated rabbis, the free admission of the Jews to all the existing Christian scholastic institutions, and the manifold favours enjoyed by Jewish mechanics, &c., were again shewn in the year 1836, by his convoking of Jewish committees.

"These consisted of rabbis, Jewish teachers, and delegates of communities. They met in all the provincial capitals of the kingdom in the public edifices, where they held regular sessions, under the presidency of a royal commissary, to solve such questions in theological, scholastic, and social matters, as had arisen during the then contemplated Jewish emancipation; and to give the Government their advice.

"One of the questions before the Committee at Würzburg was—Whether the Jewish doctrines acknowledge or reject the belief in the Trinity, as contained in the Old Testament. The rabbis consulted on this weighty point in private sessions, which I attended, having been chosen by a majority of votes as one of the referees; and they thereupon declared in the public session briefly that the doctrine of the Trinity is not contained in the Old Testament, on which account also the Jews did not acknowledge this doctrine.[498]

"The president then demanded that every one agreeing with the declaration of the rabbis should rise. All the rabbis, all the teachers, and all the delegates (116 individuals) arose. I only remained sitting, and then handed to the president a written notice, stating that I should beg the rabbis, in a circular which should be printed, to give me an explanation of various difficulties that I entertained on this point, before I could accede to the declaration made by them.

"My circular, entitled 'Israelitism in its Excellency and its Burden' ('Israelitenthum in seiner Würde und Bürde) was printed during these sessions (which lasted six weeks), and produced a universal sensation. The rabbis took it very ill that I had ventured on this step, notwithstanding I had been shewn, as in a camera obscura, in glaring colours, my prospective misery; but they did not answer my circular. Only Dr. Romann, the chief rabbi at Cassel, and Mr. J. Heidegger, a teacher of the Talmud at Fürth, wrote each one a pamphlet against me. Both of them, however, scarcely touched upon the point, and were contented with abuse, cursing, and persecution.

"My school at Heidingsfeld was advised to institute a complaint against me, as having, through my circular, shaken the basis of my religion, and to found thereon a request for my removal. The Government, however, declined entertaining the complaint; since, by issuing my circular, I had adopted the very course which the rabbis themselves had pointed out when[499] asked how a Jew should proceed in case that religious doubts should arise; since there was no supreme religious tribunal in existence to whom the case might be referred; the rabbis having declared that in such an event a circular letter stating the question should be addressed by the enquirer to all Jewish theologians.

"These reasons were too weighty to encourage an appeal to the royal 'Ministerium,' although my opponents anticipated a favourable decision from this event for themselves, notwithstanding their unholy aim.

"They, however, preferred to accuse me anew as having transgressed my religion, namely, by having taught in my schools that in case of necessity the Jews were permitted to break the laws relating to the Sabbath in order to relieve a fellow-man.

"I was cited and heard, and having confessed the truth of the charge, the royal 'Ministerium' resolved on my penal removal to the school at Main-Stockheim.

"This severe penalty could not have been inflicted, if the rabbis had not represented that Jews were not permitted to violate the Sabbatical laws in order to relieve a fellow-man.

"I was therefore obliged to leave a town where so many persons and objects were dear to me, and where I had enjoyed that rare happiness of teachers—to instruct the children of my former pupils. I was forced to leave two pretty little gardens which I had gradually raised on desert spots, and the trees which I had planted at the birth of each of my children.[500]

"I departed; my wife and children followed me weeping, and the tears of many others comforted me.

"In November, 1837, I arrived in the village of Main-Stockheim, the place of destination, as the appointed Jewish teacher of religion. The Jewish community belonged to the orthodox or pious class. I was shewn to three small rooms as my residence, and their gloomy appearance was little calculated to cheer my mind.

"I observed that this dwelling could not accommodate myself and family; and begged the Jewish School-Community (Schulgemeinde) to grant me other rooms, or else to enlarge these; but it was in vain. I was obliged to convert the lobby into a dormitory for my children. The little rooms, owing to their disproportionate loftiness, were cold and uncomfortable, and so damp that we had thick ice within, near the windows. My wife and some of my children fell sick; and I felt myself obliged, and in duty bound, to petition the royal land-tribunal for the enlargement of my dwelling, and my petition was shortly granted.

"But the Jewish Warden appealed to a higher tribunal, the Government; and when the former decision was confirmed, they appealed to the Ministerium. Much time was thus lost, and I obtained at last an additional room and a cellar.

"My salary was so small that I had to live partly on my own means; and yet the Jewish School-Community withheld from me part of the amount of firewood granted me by law. Out of love of peace, I offered to relinquish part of the withheld quantity of[501] wood, if they would but give the rest, so as to obviate the necessity of complaining to the Government; but I was forced to complain.

"The suit passed again all the various Courts as before, and was decided in my favour; the lawful quantity of wood was to be given me, and for that which had been unjustly withheld I was to be indemnified. Although I had declined to accept the indemnification granted me by law—a refusal very cheerfully accepted by my rich community—yet they did not neglect to avenge themselves upon me on the grounds of piety; being aware that this was the likeliest way to compass their end. I was accused of the following sins, which I had actually committed.

"1. That I had not only permitted my female scholars to come to the synagogue on Saturdays, but had commanded them to do so, in order to attend to the religious instructions which I there imparted.

"2. That I had cut my beard in Omer.[24]

"3. That, on one occasion, being called up to the reading of the Torah, I had appeared with gloves on.

"4. That I kept a Christian servant.

"5. That on the anniversaries of my parents' death, I did not lead the synagogue service: and,

"6. That, although I would not allow my wife to use the 'dipping bath' (Tauchbad), I would persist in giving her my arm.

"They stated that they could no longer suffer a man among them who was so immoral, so irreligious,[502] and who excited so much scandal; and since no Christian court could decide on these Jewish sins, it was requested that the chief rabbi should be heard, and that I should be discharged. I replied: and respecting the last two points on which most stress seemed to be laid, I observed first, that it had been my father's dying request that I should neither fast nor lead the synagogue service on the anniversaries of my parents' death, as the custom had originated in a superstition; and, secondly, that according to a medical testimonial which I laid before the court, my sick wife had been prohibited from using the 'dipping bath;' but the decision of the chief rabbi was, that as I had confessed my wife neglected the bath, while, at the time, it was proved that she had taken my arm in walking, I was worthy of death according to Levit. xx. 18, and must be discharged from my office forthwith. I protested against this barbarous decision, and prayed to submit it to another Rabbinat. My petition was granted, but the rabbi of the district, Mr. L. B. Bamberger, of Würzburg, declared that he fully agreed with the chief rabbi, and added that my wife also was worthy of death.

"In consequence, I was discharged, lost the salary yet due to me, though the Government had approved of my official labours, and I was adjudged as having forfeited even my claim upon the States Institution for the Relief of Orphans and Widows of German School Teachers, as well as my right to the 133 florins which I had already paid into that Institution. With this bitter experience, and provided with most satisfactory[503] testimonials from my immediate superiors, I left my native country, and went with my wife and children to the free town of Frankfort, where I enjoyed perfect peace in the capacity of a private tutor. From this brief sketch it will sufficiently appear that the rabbinical Jewish religion leads to and justifies the most revolting injustice and cruelty, a reproach which cannot be brought against Christianity."

Stern, Joseph Paul, a native of Hungary, where he had been a teacher and then a merchant, came to Jerusalem in 1851, at the age of thirty-five. Becoming ill he was admitted on application to the L.J.S. hospital, where, one may say, without a shadow of a doubt, that he was truly converted, and was baptized on Good Friday of that year. Henceforth he devoted his life to preach the grace of God as manifested in Christ Jesus, to his brethren in season and out of season. He was only a Scripture reader, but few could resist his entreaties to accept salvation through Christ, and the Jews feared him as well as respected him, for he often rewarded them good for evil. In 1860 he visited his relatives in Hungary, when he preached Christ to them, and escaped being poisoned. In 1872, when the Rev. A. Bernstein visited him in his sickness and administered the Holy Communion to him, he asked to be dressed in his best clothes, for he expected to go to the marriage of the Lamb. But he lingered yet for a while and died in 1873, uttering with his last breath—"Christ is all."

Stern, Maximilian Christian Heinrich, was baptized by Dr. Poper at Frankfurt, in 1846, when two of his[504] brothers became Christian preachers in America. He was then fifty-two years old. His family followed his example two years later. In 1856 he published "Die Jüdische Zeitrechnung." He died in 1861. (See "Jewish Missionary Intelligence," 1846, page 123).

Sternchuss, Rev. P. H., after a course of preparation in the L.J.S. Missionary Training College, was sent, together with A. J. Behrens, to open a mission at Safed in 1843, where they held a daily service and tried to have intercourse with the fanatical Jews, but were boycotted by them. In 1844, they were both ordained in Jerusalem, and Sternchuss accompanied Stern to Bagdad, whence he itinerated to Mesopotamia, visiting Hillah and Ezekiel's tomb twice, he also visited Persia. The trying climate, the galling reproaches and persecutions, and the hardships which those early missionaries in the East endured, soon told upon Sternchuss, so that he had to resign on account of ill-health in 1850, but continued still for a short time to labour for the Society in the West of England.

Tartakover, Rev. E. M. Very little information can be obtained about this servant of Christ, but that little is most interesting, inasmuch as it embraces a reflective comment on a long period of Church history in which Palestine and the Jewish residents there had no Hebrew Christian minister of the Gospel. On October 30th, 1842, Tartakover was ordained in Jerusalem by Bishop Alexander. Such an event as the ordination of a Jewish convert had not been witnessed in the Holy City since Apostolic times.[505]

Tomory, Rev. A., after finishing his theological studies at Edinburgh, was appointed by the Free Church of Scotland as a missionary at Pesth in 1853. In 1864 he was transferred to Constantinople, where he carried on a most faithful and fruitful work, both evangelistic and educational, during the remainder of his earthly pilgrimage, and left a worthy memorial in the home for enquiring Jews which he founded at Galata.

Tremellius, John Immanuel, was born at Ferrara in 1510; and died at Sedan, October 9th, 1580. He was educated at the University of Padua, and baptized in the Roman Catholic Church about 1540, through the influence of Cardinal Pole, but embraced Protestantism in the following year, and went to Strasburg to teach Hebrew. Owing to the wars of the Reformation in Germany, he was compelled to seek refuge in England, where he resided at Lambeth Palace with Archbishop Cranmer in 1547. In 1549 he succeeded Paul Fagius as Regius Professor of Hebrew at Cambridge. On the death of Edward VI. he revisited Germany, and, after some vicissitudes, became Professor of the Old Testament at Heidelberg in 1561. He ultimately found a home in the College of Sedan, where he died. His chief literary work was a Latin translation of the Bible from the Hebrew and Syriac. The five parts relating to the Old Testament were published at Frankfurt between 1575 and 1579; in London in 1580, and in numerous later editions. Tremellius also translated into Hebrew Calvin's Catechism (Paris, 1551), and wrote a Chaldaic and Syriac grammar (Paris, 1569).[506]

Turckheim, Rev. Ernest Julius, had been, at the age of twenty-one, master of a Jewish school at West Hartlepool, where he gave great satisfaction to the parents of the children, so that they wished him to become their minister. In order that he should be able conscientiously to discharge his duties, Turckheim applied himself to a diligent study of the Old Testament. This in itself made him more serious than he had been before. Meeting with Mr. J. Alexander, then agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society at the Crystal Palace, he received from him a New Testament, and through reading it earnestly he became convinced of the truth of Christianity, and was baptized in 1873. He then studied at the London College of Divinity, and was ordained at York in 1875-6 to the curacy of St. Thomas there. In 1878 he was curate of All Saints', Derby. In 1879 he became curate of All Souls', Langham Place, London. In 1882 he was appointed to the living of Hale Magna, in Lincolnshire, where he did good work until his death in 1907.

Speaking at the L.J.S. anniversary meeting in 1893, he said:—"A Jew by birth, a Jew by training and practice till I was twenty-four years old; a Jew still by every feeling of national loyalty and sympathy, I thank God that I can say, nevertheless I am also a Christian. And it is as a Jew and a Christian I have responded to your invitation, and am standing here to-day and make this solemn confession of my faith. It is due to the grace of God, it is due to the power of His Word, which is the power of God unto salvation,[507] unto every one that believeth—to the Jew first. It is due, I must add, to the patience and forbearance, to the love and labours, to the life and death, to the mediation and sufferings for me of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. It is due to the prayers of God's people, it is due to this Society. It is due to all of you who labour and pray, and make substantial sacrifices for the promotion of Christianity amongst the Jews. It is due that we Christian Jews who have, by the grace of God, been brought out of Jewish darkness into the blessed and happy position of pardoned sinners by the blood of the Cross, that we should fearlessly declare with no uncertain sound, that whilst we are Christians by grace, we are still Jews by nature, by race, and by sympathy, and thus take a humble part in testifying to the blessed and everlasting truth that God has not cast away His people, that there is still a remnant according to the election of grace. It is twenty years since I ventured my eternal welfare with Jesus of Nazareth. After twenty years of mature deliberation and trial, I once more take my stand beside the Ethiopian eunuch, and declare to-day, with my heart full of thankful gladness and humble faith, 'I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.' Twenty years, we must observe, is a period wherein a man can make a test of a step that he has taken, and I never, never, for one moment, have wavered in my conviction that 'there is none other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved,' than the name of Jesus Christ."[508]

Vambrey, Hermann, was born in 1832 at Szerdahely, on the Island Schütt, Hungary. He studied at Pressburg, especially modern languages, and became a member of the Reformed Church after his baptism. At the age of twenty-two he became tutor in a Turkish family in Constantinople, and later he travelled through Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia, Turkestan, Bokhara, Samarkand and the regions of the Oxus. Dressed as a dervish he passed through all these countries unhurt, but was often in danger. He then published his experiences and acquisitions in these journeys, in the following works: "German-Turkish Dictionary" (Constantinople, 1858). "Dsagataic Dictionary" (Hungarian), (Pesth, 1861). "An Etymological Dictionary of Torkatartaric Languages" (Leipzig, 1877). "The Russian Power in Asia" (ib., 1871). "Central Asia" and "Anglo-Russian Relations" (ib. 1873). "Travels in Central Asia" (ib., 1865). "Sketches from Central Asia" (ib. 1868). "Wanderings and Experience in Persia" (1867). "Niguric Linguistic Documents" (Innsbruck, 1870). "History of Bokhara" (Stuttgart, 1872). "Islam in the 19th Century" (Leipzig, 1875). "Moral Pictures from the East" (Berlin, 1876); and a number of other works. He wrote his autobiography under the titles, "Arminius Vambrey, His Life and Adventures" (London, 1883), and "Struggles of my Life" (ib., 1894).

Vanorden, Rev. E., a Dutch Jew, who was baptized by Dr. Ewald in 1863. He afterwards studied for the ministry in America and was sent as a missionary to Brazil, where he laboured at San Paulo for many years.[509]

Venetianer, Pastor A., son of a Jewish rabbi, was converted through the preaching of the Rev. C. A. Schönberger. He afterward studied theology in Serftom. In 1879 he became Pastor in Panseora, Hungary, and afterwards in Trieste, where he wrote a book entitled: "Die Evangelische reformite Kirche Cristo Salvatore zu Triest" (Trieste and Leipzig, 1887); and also an epistle to Rabbi J. Lichtenstein in Tapio Szele, entitled "Zum Zeugniss" (Vienna, 1886). Later on he became Pastor at Rohrbach, South Russia, where he supported the movement of Rabinowitz.

Vicars, Mrs. Murray, was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish merchant, and was brought to a knowledge of the Saviour through her intercourse with a Christian nurse. Her father, when attending the dedication of a new synagogue, took cold and became dangerously ill. His Jewish friends of the synagogue came to visit him, but were afraid to tell him that he was on the brink of the grave, and he died soon after. This brought her serious thoughts and led her to question the reason why the Jews shrink from mentioning the subject of death to a sick man. She had afterward to appear before a Court in reference to the property which her father had left and to take an oath before the magistrate. An Old Testament was then handed to her for that purpose, when she exclaimed before the whole assembly of Jews and Christians: "The New Testament is for me." This raised a great commotion, but having taken this decisive step, she did not hesitate to become a member of the Church by baptism. She afterward married the Rev.[510] Murray Vicars, and went with him to Bagdad to labour amongst the Jews there. On their journey back to England on account of ill-health, her husband died at Marseilles, in 1850, and she settled at Brighton, where she founded a school for ragged children. It must be added that her sister, too, embraced Christianity, and she left three sons, clergymen of the Church of England, two of them are especially well known—the Rev. Charles Neil and the Rev. James Neil. The latter was incumbent of Christ Church, Mount Zion, from 1871-74.

The maiden name of Mrs. Murray Vicars was Fanny Phillips; her brother Samuel was a distinguished man of letters.

Wallfisch, Rev. J. H., was brought to a knowledge of Christ by Professor Cassel at Breslau, and after his baptism there he was for a time in the service of the Free Church of Scotland. He emigrated to the United States and, joining the Methodist Episcopal Church, became secretary of the Jewish mission of that body, founded an "Institutum Judaicum" amongst the students of the Anglo-German College at Golena, and received from Milton College the degree of Doctor of Music.

Weiss, Edward, was converted through the instrumentality of Dr. Zuckerkandl at Rustschuk, Bulgaria, in 1869, where he was for some time teacher in the mission school. On account of the Russo-Turkish war, he was removed by the British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel amongst the Jews to Vienna, and assisted Salkinson. At least thirty of[511] his enquirers were baptized there. The rest of his life was spent in preaching the Gospel at Pressburg, where he had frequent intercourse with the students of the Rabbinic Seminary there. He died in 1905.

Wolf, Philipp, D.D., was baptized in 1554. He wrote "Spiegel der Juden," in which he brings proofs from Moses and the prophets that Jesus is the Messiah, and gives information concerning the Jewish prayers, some of which he quotes in German, and also in reference to the "Shem Hamphorath," or ineffable name of God. (Wolff, Bib. Heb. 3 N. 1830 c.)

Wolff, Joseph. The two great missionary explorers of the nineteenth century were David Livingstone and Joseph Wolff. The labours of the former were chiefly confined to Negro races of the "Dark Continent"; whereas the latter made most extensive journeys amongst the various remnants of the tribes of Israel scattered throughout Africa and Asia. The lives of both these great men touch upon all that is romantic and of thrilling interest in the wide range of exploration, and none the less so because they consecrated themselves to their Master's service, and, with a consuming zeal for souls, went forth to seek and to save the lost.

Joseph Wolff was the pioneer missionary to Jews in the Orient. Like St. Paul, he, too, was "in journeyings often, in perils of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils by the heathen, in perils in the city, in perils in the wilderness." His almost superhuman efforts in the third and fourth decades of last century cast a halo[512] of romance around Jewish missions, and laid the foundation for much subsequent work. Within the short period of sixteen years we find him visiting Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Asia Minor, Asiatic Turkey, Persia, India, Bokhara, Abyssinia and Arabia—and some of these countries more than once. Verily, he compassed sea and land to make proselytes to the faith, of which he became such a doughty champion.

The life of this remarkable man naturally falls into three periods—his early years as a Jew; his missionary efforts amongst his brethren; and his last years quietly and uneventfully passed in country parishes in England. Our chief concern is with the middle period, to which, however, we can do but scant justice, as its constant and restless action and stirring adventures overwhelm us with an embarrassment of riches.

"Wolff," as he was simply called, after his grandfather, was born at Weilersbach, a small Bavarian village, in 1795, or 1796,[25] of Jewish parents, his father, whose name was David, belonging to the tribe of Levi. He was the rabbi of the small Jewish community of the place, numbering fifteen families, but soon after the birth of his son he removed to Halle. In his very early years the boy received a strict Jewish education, and at the age of six recited the Hebrew prayer-book every day. He was then sent to a Christian school, but apparently[513] only to learn German. When Wolff was eleven years old he was placed at the Protestant Lyceum at Stuttgart, but growing dissatisfied with it, he went to reside with his cousin, Moses Cohen, at Bamberg, and entered the Roman Catholic Lyceum of that place. He there made up his mind to become a Christian and a missionary like Francis Xavier. But he was unsettled in the extreme in his search after the truth, and wandered to Würzburg, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Halle, Prague, Vienna, Pressburg, back again to Vienna, Mölk, Munich, Anspach, Saxe Weimar, Heidelberg, Soleure, and finally arrived at Prague. There he was baptized by the Abbot of the Benedictine Monastery Emaus, in the year 1812, at the age of seventeen, receiving the name of "Joseph." At his confirmation shortly afterwards he received the two further names of "Stanilaus Wenceslaus," which, however, he never used.

Joseph Wolff was by this time proficient in the Latin, Persian, Chaldean, and Syriac languages, and entered the University of Vienna to study Arabic, Ecclesiastical History, and Divinity. There he remained two years. In 1814 he resided with Count Stollberg, and, like every one else, was much exercised at Napoleon's escape from Elba. In 1815 Wolff entered the Lutheran University of Tübingen to pursue his studies in Oriental languages and theology; but he left the next year on a pilgrimage to Rome, travelling on foot through Switzerland and Italy until he reached the Eternal City. Being[514] introduced to Pope Pius VII., he shewed him a Hebrew Bible which had been the companion of his travels. Wolff entered the Collegio Romano, and in 1817 the Propaganda, from which his Protestant leanings, and neglect of scholastic divinity for the Bible, caused his expulsion in 1818. Wolff now returned to Vienna, lamenting that his missionary aspirations had been frustrated. In his distress of mind he wrote to Hoffbauer, Vicar-General of the Liguorians, who received him into his monastery. Wolff was not happy there for more than a few months, and leaving Vienna, travelled through Austria to the Benedictine monastery of Krems-Münster, where he was well received by the monks. Too restless to remain long in any place, Wolff travelled through Bavaria, Switzerland, and France, entering first this monastery and then that. At Paris he met with Robert Haldane, who exercised a powerful religious influence over him; and with whom he journeyed to London.

We naturally find our interest in this talented and eager youth increasing on his arrival in England, in 1819, at the age of twenty-four, when he came under the notice of Mr. Henry Drummond, the Rev. Charles Simeon, the Rev. Lewis Way, and other well-known friends of Israel. Wolff made his way, as almost every baptized or enquiring Jew did when first arriving in this country, to "Palestine Place," the missionary headquarters of the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, where all were sure of a hearty welcome. He attended the[515] service in the Episcopal Jews' Chapel, conducted by the chaplain, the Rev. Charles Sleech Hawtrey, and, to use his own words, was "enchanted with the devotion and beauty of the ritual." Henceforth he considered himself a member of the Church of England. The Society sent him to Cambridge to be trained as a missionary, and to study theology under Simeon (himself of Jewish extraction), and other Oriental languages under Professor Lee. Two years' residence there, and a short course at the London Society's Seminary in Sussex, were sufficient for the zealous young convert who was longing for active missionary service abroad. Mr. Drummond sent him forth on his career. His feverish anxiety to be thus employed is seen in his selection of the words of Francis Xavier, "Who would not travel over land and sea to be instrumental in the salvation of one soul?" as the motto for the title page of his "Travels." Wolff left England in April, 1821, and with passing calls at Gibraltar, and Malta (where he baptized a Jew) in due time he reached Alexandria. He spent three months amongst the Jews of that city and of Cairo, preaching in their synagogues, and distributing New Testaments. A visit which he paid to the Convent of St. Catherine, Mount Sinai, is interesting from the fact that the monks promised to pray for the conversion of the Jews.

Wolff's eyes, however, were fixed on the Holy City, and his work in Egypt was regarded by himself as a "preparation for preaching the Gospel of Christ at Jerusalem." He did so first in the synagogue of[516] the Karaites; and afterwards made daily efforts for three or four months to reach the Sephardim, Ashkenazim and Chassidim, both by word of mouth and circulation of the Holy Scriptures.

Towards the end of 1822, Wolff visited Antioch and Aleppo, just before the terrible earthquake visitation of the latter city, when hundreds of Jews confessed that the truth of the Gospel could not be denied. In the spring of 1823 he was again in Egypt following up his previous work, and going on to Jerusalem for Easter. His three months' labour there amongst the Jews, thus described by himself, "I lodged among them, and was engaged in preaching the Gospel from morning to night, and often all night," cleared the way for subsequent efforts.

In the same year Wolff visited Damascus, where the Jews eagerly accepted the Arabic Bibles which he had with him, and Aleppo, where he was again well received.

Wolff's account of his visit to Bagdad in 1824, and other cities of Mesopotamia, is most interesting reading. He seems to have visited the scattered communities of Jews, amongst all of whom he had easy access. At Mosul he was shewn a Hebrew translation of the New Testament which had been made by a rabbi a hundred years previously. Left as a precious heirloom to the rabbinical college, it had remained neglected until Wolff pointed out its priceless value. At Orfa, the ancient "Ur of the Chaldees," Wolff found about fifty Jewish families,[517] and some Jacobites, or Syrian Christians, claiming to be lineally descended from Jews who received Christianity through the preaching of St. James at Jerusalem. Their peculiar ceremonies, as also their features, gave colour to their claim to be literal as well as spiritual children of Abraham.

In 1825 Wolff visited the various Jewish communities of Persia, who, perhaps, have better grounds than any other people to be regarded as descendants of the "Lost Ten Tribes." In 1827 and 1828 Wolff visited the Ionian Islands and Asia Minor. At Smyrna he awakened, as indeed he did everywhere, a widespread enquiry into Christianity on the part of the Jews.

Probably the most romantic and thrilling of all Wolff's experiences were those which he encountered at Bokhara in 1832. "Adventures to the adventurous" is a truism, and Wolff was bold and daring to the last degree, otherwise he would not have accomplished his purpose. He dressed as a Turkoman, and so obtained an audience of the king, when he was denounced as a Russian spy by the Jews. By his wonderful adroitness he overcame all opposition, and received permission to evangelize the Jews, but was forbidden to hold religious converse with Moslems. He took lodgings at the house of a Jew, and was visited by his brethren, who asserted that their forefathers had been carried from Samaria by the Kings of Assyria and brought to Haran (Isa. xxxvii. 12), i.e., Bokhara. The three months spent there by Wolff, especially amongst the learned[518] class, were fruitful, and he baptized as many as twenty. These men had all remained faithful when he visited Bokhara again in 1844. That second visit, more hazardous even than the first, was made with the purpose of ascertaining the fate of Colonel Stoddart and Captain Conolly,—two Englishmen, who, as subsequently transpired, had been murdered. Wolff's arrival in the city was witnessed by 20,000 persons shouting "welcome" to the enterprising traveller, whose costume—gown, hood, and shovel-hat—roused no small astonishment. Wolff obtained permission from the king for the Jews to repair their ancient synagogue.[26]

In 1833 we find Wolff in India, visiting the white and the black Jews of Cochin, and the Beni-Israel of Poona, Calcutta and Bombay. This was not an unexplored field, as the L.J.S. missionaries had been working there from 1820 to 1830. Wolff found plenty to do, and at Calcutta, for six successive days, talked twelve hours on end to all who came to his "retreat."

Hitherto Asia had been the principal scene of Wolff's labours, but in 1835 he was in Abyssinia and in 1836 in Arabia, visiting the Yemen. At Sanaa he expounded Isaiah liii. to the Jews, and subsequently baptized four with their families. The Jews were polygamists, but apparently dissatisfied with the state of things thus entailed.

Lack of space prohibits us from enlarging on Wolff's labours in the East. His own descriptions[519] remain to this day the most entertaining of missionary annals, and bear witness to the wonderful activity of the man whose striking personality, not unmixed with a harmless and naive egotism, carried him through numberless dangers, and extricated him from perilous situations. The restlessness of his nature, which in early life impelled him to wander over Europe in search of light and learning, developed in succeeding years into that consecrated fiery energy and impulse which made him so peculiarly fitted to play the rôle of pioneer missionary. Many of his friends, as he said, "believed him to be Elijah," though he archly added, "he always believed himself to be Joseph Wolff!" But a pioneer he was in every sense of the word, and as such rendered yeoman service to a cause, which more than all others, perhaps, needs all the glamour and romance it can call to its aid. So great was his dramatic power in describing his travels that Archbishop Whately proclaimed him to be "a missionary Shakespeare."

Wolff had an iron constitution and a powerful frame, absolutely impervious to matters of climate, and privations, however severe and enduring. He records that, when travelling in India in 1832, he was stripped of everything, and in danger of being "made into sausages," and "had to walk without a rag of clothing on for 600 miles from the Hindu Koosh to the Punjaub, through storms and snow!" He was relieved and clothed at Cabul by Lieutenant Burnes. Wolff's character, wonderful activity, and resources,[520] were thus caustically summed up by one who knew him:—

"He appears to me to be a comet without any perihelion, and capable of setting a whole system on fire. When I should have addressed him in Syria, I heard of him at Malta, and when I supposed he was gone to England, he was riding like a ruling angel in the whirlwinds of Antioch, or standing unappalled among the crumbling towers of Aleppo. A man who at Rome calls the Pope 'the dust of the earth,' and at Jerusalem tells the Jews that the 'Gemara is a lie'; who passes his days in disputation, and his nights in digging in the Talmud; to whom a floor of brick is a feather-bed and a box is a bolster; who makes or finds a friend alike in the persecutor of his former or of his present faith; who can conciliate a Pasha or confute a patriarch; who travels without a guide, speaks without an interpreter, can live without food, and pay without money, forgiving all the insults he meets with, and forgetting all the flattery he receives; who knows little of worldly conduct, and yet accommodates himself to all men without giving offence to any—such a man (and such and more is Wolff) must excite no ordinary degree of attention in a country and among a people whose monotony of manners and habits has remained undisturbed for centuries. As a pioneer I deem him matchless, aut inveniet viam, aut faciet; but, if order is to be established or arrangements made, trouble not Wolff. He knows of no church but his heart, no calling but that of zeal, no dispensation but that of preaching.[521] He is devoid of enmity towards man, and full of the love of God. By such an instrument, whom no school hath taught, whom no college could hold, is the way of the Judæan wilderness preparing.... Thus are his brethren provoked to emulation and stirred up to inquiry. They all perceive, as everyone must, that whatever he is, he is in earnest; they acknowledge him to be a sincere believer in Jesus of Nazareth, and that is a great point gained with them, for the mass of the ignorant and unconverted Jews deny the possibility of real conversion from Judaism."[27]

General Sir Charles Napier said that Wolff had "worked harder for religion, and had gone through more dangers for it, with a brave heart, than any man living."

Of his life in England as a parochial clergyman, but little can be said in this biography. He married, when a young man, the daughter of the Earl of Orford, Lady Georgiana Walpole, with whom he lived happily for thirty years, and whose son was Sir Henry Drummond Wolff. When he settled in England, he became vicar of Linthwaite, a small village in Yorkshire. His friend, Henry Drummond, after whom he had named his son, wrote, "Your call is to be an evangelist for all the nations of the earth, and for this you are fit; but, to use your own simile, you are as fit for a parish priest as I am for a dancing-master." Wolff shortly afterwards removed, on[522] account of his wife's health, to the sole charge of High Hoyland, another Yorkshire village, with about 120 souls. There, too, he must have felt like a lion in a cage; and when, five years later, he resigned his charge on the ground of not being able to meet his expenses, and undertook his second journey to Bokhara, he must indeed have rejoiced in an aftermath of the freedom and action of his earlier career. One little incident is too good to be omitted. Before Wolff entered upon the curacy, his predecessor, doubting the sentiments of his successor, preached his farewell sermon from the text, "After my departure shall grievous wolves enter in among you." Wolff remarks, "However, he was very merciful, and made no allusion to the coming 'Wolff' in his sermon!"

On his return from Bokhara, Wolff was appointed to the living of Isle-Brewers, in Somersetshire, with a population of 300, amongst whom were two farmers, all the rest being peasants. There Wolff remained for the remainder of his life, his talents and brilliant gifts being wasted in such retirement, but his energy knowing no diminution. He built a new parsonage and schools, defraying a portion of the expense from the proceeds of his works and lectures; and erected a new church, for the cost of which he laid all his numerous friends and everybody else, under contribution by incessant correspondence and personal applications. He was a father to his poor, and every winter supported thirty-five families with the necessities of life. Wolff was the neighbour and firm friend of[523] George Anthony Denison, "dearer to him than any," although theologically in the opposite camp. Amongst Wolff's other numerous friends and acquaintances, we may mention the names of Sir Walter Scott, Dean Stanley, Dean Hook, Alfred Tennyson, and Alfred and Margaret Gatty.

Wolff died in 1862, at the age of 66 or 67 years—a long life, when the restless activity of brain and body is taken into account, and a full life, in every sense of the word. He exemplified in his person the saying, "It is better to wear out than to rust out." And his epitaph might well have been, "The zeal of Thine house hath eaten me up."

Wolff, Oscar Ludwig Bernard, was born in Altona, 1799. After embracing Christianity (the date uncertain) he held the professorship of modern languages and literature successively at Weimar and at Jena, where he died in 1851. His literary works appeared at Jena in 1841-43 in fourteen volumes. The best known of his works are "Poetischer Hausschatz des Deutschen Volkes" (Leipzig, 1839); "Hausschatz Deutscher Prosa" (ib., 1855) and "Geschichte des Deutschen Romans," Jena 1843.

Wolkenberg, Rev. Marcus. Mordecai Wolkenberg (for such was his Jewish name) was born in 1834 in Russian Poland. When quite young he was smuggled over the border into Galicia (Austrian Poland) to avoid being Christianized and trained for military service, it often being the custom in the time of the Emperor Nicholas I. to seize Jewish lads for those ends. Mordecai was placed by his parents with[524] pious and orthodox relatives at Brody, where he gained the interest of the famous rabbi of the town, Salomon Kluger, and through his teaching soon acquired a good Hebrew and Talmudical education. When quite a young man he was appointed tutor in the home of the rich banker Cahner at Jassy, where he remained about two years. During his stay there he made the acquaintance of the Rev. W. Mayer, the L.J.S. missionary. After a time of great heart-searching and deep spiritual experience, he was led to embrace the Christian faith, and was baptized. Thereupon he had to pass through a period of bitter trial and persecution, instigated chiefly by his employer. His occupation had brought him in contact with many people. All these forsook him when he made his public confession of Christianity. At length he had to leave Jassy, and, after a while, Marcus (as his name now was) went to the Malta Protestant College; later on he came to London, when he read theology with the Rev. A. S. Thelwall. In 1863 he was appointed an assistant missionary at Jassy. This was a great trial to his feelings and faith, for it was there that he first found Christ, and there, in consequence, that he had first tasted the venom of religious hatred. Here, however, to his surprise, he was sought for and visited by numbers of his former acquaintances. A wide door, and effectual, was thus opened to him, one result of years of patient school and other missionary work by those who had long laboured in Jassy. Of this circumstance he says: "Most of these visitors were teachers, some[525] merchants, and others near relatives of one of the wealthiest Jews here. Nor has the bold proclamation of the truth, on my part, deterred them from continuing their intercourse with me." For seven years he thus worked in Jassy and in Bacau for Christ, and with much blessing. In 1870, owing to the illness of his wife, he had to return to England; where he laboured successively in London, Manchester, Birmingham, and lastly in Liverpool, where he died April 17th, 1900, very much regretted by all who knew him, and not least by many Jews, who spoke in the highest terms of his goodness, piety, and scholarship.

Xeres, Jonah ben Jacob, was a native of North Africa, where he came in contact with English Christian merchants and learned the truth as it is in Jesus from them. In 1707 he came to London and was instructed and baptized by Dr. Allix in 1709. He then wrote an "Address to the Jews," containing his reasons for leaving the Jewish and embracing the Christian religion. (See Wolff Bib. Heb., 14, N. 823.)

The book is dedicated to the then Archbishop of York (in 1709), and prefaced by an attestation to the respectability of the author by seven London merchants, and another by the learned Dr. Allix.

"We, whose names are underwritten, merchants trading into Barbary in Africa, do hereby certify, all whom it may concern, that we, each of us, having formerly lived for several years in those parts, did then, as we do now, personally know Jonah ben Jacob Xeres, who was born in Saphia, a sea-port town on that coast. His parents, being Hebrews,[526] were reputed to be honest and substantial people; who employed much care in educating this their son, Jonah, in the Jewish religion, and no less expense in instructing him in the Hebrew, Arabic, and Chaldean tongues. He the said Jonah lived in that country a professed Jew, till the age of five and twenty, or thereabouts; and always behaved himself sober in his conversation, and no less just in his dealing, as some of us have experienced, having had occasion to employ him on several accounts, whereby, amongst other conversation, he had an opportunity of discoursing with some in our factory about matters of religion; and, as he now informs us, was thereby possessed with some notion, that the Messiah had already come; whereby, being uneasy under such a weighty doubt, he came over to England about eighteen months ago, in order to acquire a full satisfaction. After some time here, he applied himself to some of us to recommend him to some learned Divine for information; whereupon he was sent to the Rev. Dr. Allix, on whom some of us have since waited, who, requesting of us a character of the said Jonah, is the occasion of this paper, which we do in all respects believe to be true, and have a very good opinion of the probity and sincerity of the above-mentioned Jonah; and that we trust upon his examination, he will prove to the judgment of the Most Reverend the Archbishops, the Right Reverend the Bishops, the Reverend the Clergy, and all other pious Christians, to whom we recommend him, [527]&c.

"Done at London, this eight and twentieth day of May, one thousand seven hundred and nine.

"Peter Fleuriot, Samuel Robinson, John Lodington, John Adams, Val. Norton, Robert Colmore, Thomas Coleman."

"These are to certify, that upon several discourses had with the aforementioned Jonah ben Jacob Xeres, I have found him very well acquainted with the Holy Scriptures of the Old Testament, and all other Jewish and particularly Talmudical learning; so that he was very ready, upon the chief objections that Jews make to the doctrine, deity, and office of our Saviour. But, as he is endowed with very good natural and acquired parts, I was the more able to satisfy and convince him of the truth; so that, after having examined by Scripture all the most material controversies, he hath freely declared to myself, and his other friends, his desire to renounce the errors and prejudices of his education in the Jewish religion, and to embrace and profess the Christian faith.

"Witness my hand this 30th day of July, 1709.

"Peter Allix, D.D."

Zabanski, J., was born at Minsk in Lithuania. His father, a bigoted Talmudist, sent him once on an errand to a Christian nobleman, who made him a present of a Hebrew New Testament which, on coming home, he innocently enough shewed his father, and was peremptorily told to take it back. This excited in him the curiosity to know the contents of the book, and he soon procured one. Detected in reading it, he was punished by his father more than once, and at last[528] the father got the police to give him twenty-five strokes with a rod for disobedience. The consequence was that he got ill and had to be taken to a hospital. After being there nine weeks, he ran away, obtained a situation as a teacher in a family for three years, where he got possession of a German New Testament and Dr. McCaul's "Old Paths." He then returned to his father and asked his permission to go abroad. As this was not granted, he again ran away, and this time to Constantinople, where he heard the Gospel from a missionary named Goldberg. Thence he went to Jerusalem, and was admitted by Hershon into the House of Industry. His countrymen there, who knew his father as a learned Talmudist, tried every means to snatch him away from the Mission. They even went to Rachel's grave to pray for his return to Judaism, and finally sent two Jews to his father to come and fetch him, but Zabanski became a Christian and laboured afterwards as a missionary of the L.J.S. from 1864 to 1867, and for a long period as an agent of the British and Foreign Bible Society, in Bulgaria.

Zeckhausen, Rev. Leopold. The following is from his own pen:—

"I was born in December, 1862, at Kovno in Russia, of strictly orthodox Jewish parents, and, with the rest of my brothers, I got the usual education of rabbinical Jews. My mother, like so many mothers in Israel, would fain have seen me devoting myself entirely to the Talmud. I was to be the rabbi of the family. My inclinations, however, were in the[529] direction of secular knowledge, and my father was broad-minded enough not to insist upon an exclusively rabbinical training. At the age of eleven I was accordingly sent to the local Gymnasium, or grammar school. After a stay of six years at this school I left Russia with the intention of studying medicine at the University of Koenigsberg in Prussia. But six months later financial difficulties, in which my father found himself, necessitated my dropping the studies and accepting a post offered me in an office (July, 1881.)

"Once in business I threw myself heart and soul into my new vocation, and kept on rising steadily. At the end of ten years spent in business houses in Koenigsberg, Frankfort and Amsterdam, I was offered a partnership at Libau in Russia. I declined it, however, after some deliberation, and decided to leave business for good (1891).

"That step was the outcome of another and a more important one, which I had taken three years previously, and which proved to be the turning point of my life. While still at my father's house I had begun to get weary of the endless, and often meaningless ceremonies of rabbinical Judaism. In Germany and Holland, surrounded by general religious indifference and rampant scepticism, my faith in Judaism waned more and more. I tried to make myself acquainted with Christianity, assayed to study the New Testament, but not with the hope of finding in it truth and peace. My studies were mostly of a critical nature. My Jewish prejudices, though largely toned[530] down by frequent intercourse with Christians, were still potent enough to prevent an impartial investigation. The difficulties of the Gospels seemed to me insuperable. So I continued to drift further and further away from religious influences, until at Amsterdam I found myself at a boarding house in the company of some earnest Christian young men. They were schoolmasters—intelligent, idealistic, eager to learn and to exchange thoughts with others, and before very long we were on friendly terms. Through their intercourse, the almost extinguished interest for religious thought once more revived in me. Not that we ever went in for regular theological discussions—mere politeness forbade that—but Dante's 'Inferno,' Milton's 'Paradise Lost,' and other literary productions with a religious basis, were often talked over among us, and I could not help being impressed by the true, though unobtrusive, religious fervour of those educated young men.

"I decided to look for a person competent to deal with my prejudices and willing to assist me to a spiritual understanding of Christianity. An Encyclopædia helped to the address of the London Society for Promoting Christianity amongst the Jews, and a letter from the Secretary introduced me to the Society's missionary at Amsterdam, the Rev. A. C. Adler. I told that gentleman, on my first visit to him, that it was not so much the history of Christ and Christianity as the spiritual element of the New Testament that baffled me, and that I should feel obliged to him for some light upon the subject. I did not pretend to any[531] desire of embracing Christianity, nor did Mr. Adler, on his part, so much as hint at that eventuality. He most readily acceded to my request for enlightenment, and suggested that we should read together the Gospel of St. John. For some seven weeks I had the little expected pleasure of listening to a masterly exposition of a book that had been till then the least intelligible one to me in the New Testament. I shall never forget the impression Mr. Adler's intelligent interpretation of that Gospel produced upon my mind and heart. I felt myself literally introduced into a new world—into that spiritual world of which the carnal mind and the materialist know nothing. The person of Christ kept on growing before and within me until I could think of nothing else. But I was not to yield myself to Him without a struggle.

"Mr. Adler, with an unerring tact, restricted himself conscientiously to the task of instruction. He asked no questions, nor did he invite me to a confession of faith. Had he done so, I fear he had but succeeded in repelling me, at least for a time.

"When I found myself face to face with the question:—'What think you now of Christ?'—pride of reason and lingering prejudice seemed to assert themselves more. I at once suddenly ceased visiting Mr. Adler and thought of getting Christianity out of my head entirely. I cannot tell whether Mr. Adler still entertained the hope of ever seeing me again in his study; I certainly intended that it should not be the case.[532]

"The Lord Jesus, however, had become too strong for me to resist Him successfully for any length of time. My peace of mind was clean gone, and I had, for my own part, experienced the truth of our Lord's words, 'No man can come to Me, except the Father which hath sent Me, draw him.'

"After a time I was again at Mr. Adler's. When, in answer to my knock there came his Dutch 'Binnen!' ('Come in!'), and I stepped into the room, Mr. Adler came hurriedly up to meet me, and, taking both my hands, exclaimed joyfully, 'You have come again. Then all is right. I knew you would not come unless your doubts were conquered. I have been praying for that.'

"A few days after this episode I received a telegraphic message necessitating my immediate return to Germany. I took at once a train to Zandvoort, a seaside place near Amsterdam, where Mr. Adler was at the time with his family for their summer holiday. I told him I had to leave Holland without delay and requested, as a special favour, that he would admit me into the Church of Christ by baptism the very next day. Mr. Adler looked rather perplexed. He was, on principle, he told me, opposed to doing things in a hurry, and especially when baptism was under consideration. But my case was so exceptional that he thought he saw in it the Lord's doing, and could not therefore refuse my request.

"The following morning, Sunday, August 12th, 1888, Mr. Adler was in the pulpit of his church,[533] after explaining the reason of his unexpected return to Amsterdam, he invited the congregation to be present at my baptism that afternoon. Saintly old Mr. Bloch, late missionary of the L.J.S., and the beadle of the church, acted as witnesses to my public declaration of faith in Christ crucified.

"On the day following my baptism I had already left Holland, and was on my way back to Koenigsberg. There I spent another three years, following my commercial vocation and keeping up all along a pretty regular correspondence with Mr. Adler, to whose instruction I owed so much. In those letters he frequently reminded me of my Christian duty toward my Jewish brethren, and invited me to offer myself for missionary training. I doubted my qualifications for such a calling, questioned the advisability of going back to college after an interval of ten years spent in commercial pursuits, but at last I decided to follow the call, and sent an application to London for admission into the London Jews' Society's Missionary College. I was admitted there in December, 1891, and remained associated with the Institution for three years and a-half, till July, 1895.

"Having completed the course of my studies, I was attached to the staff of the London Mission, thence I was transferred to work at Manchester in 1896, and exactly three years later to Jerusalem. Here I was ordained deacon at Christmas, 1900, and priest on Trinity Sunday, 1902, by the Bishop of the Church of England in Jerusalem and the East, Dr. Blyth. Here also I was married to Miss Sara Jane Ellison,[534] daughter of the late Dean Ellison, of Shillelagh, County Wicklow, Ireland, April, 1901.

"I may be allowed to mention in conclusion that the decision to give up my business prospects, in order to become a missionary to the Jews, was soon amply rewarded by the Lord. My elder brother, with whom I had exchanged many letters on the subject of Christianity ever since I had embraced it myself, without apparently making much impression on him, wrote to me now—having heard of the step I had taken—to express his appreciation of what I had done. 'Whatsoever people may think of your motives or your actions, there is probably no one that can put them down at their proper value better than myself,' ran his note. 'I have seen you during the last ten years steadily climbing the ladder of commercial success, gaining in experience and reputation, and about to earn the fruit of much labour, and then to throw it all deliberately over in order to become a missionary! I cannot help admiring you. You have done the right and proper thing. Though we differ in our religious opinions, we do not on the point of principle. You have acted as I should have expected an honest man, with soul above £ s. d. to act. It is refreshing to find enthusiasm for ideal goods in our sordid age of materialism.'

"This brother of mine is now, I am grateful to say, himself a worker in the Lord's vineyard, labouring with marked success as a medical missionary amongst the Jews of New York, faithfully assisted by his wife—also a convert from Judaism."[535]

In 1902 the Rev. L. and Mrs. Zeckhausen were transferred from Jerusalem to Cracow; and in 1908, on the death of his spiritual father, the Rev. A. C. Adler, he succeeded to the headship of the L.J.S. mission at Amsterdam and Rotterdam.

Zuckerkandle, Dr., and his wife were converted and baptized in Pesth through the instrumentality of the Rev. William Wingate. He was afterwards a missionary of the L.J.S. in Bucharest, and later on he entered the service of the British Society for the Propagation of the Gospel among the Jews and conducted a school at Rustschuk in Bulgaria, where he died in 1874. The widow came then to London, and laboured amongst the Jewesses in Spitalfields for many years with great blessing upon her work of love. She was probably the first to organize a Jewish mothers' meeting.

Zuckertort, G. J., father of the famous chessplayer, was won for Christ through the preaching of the L.J.S. missionary Wendt, and was baptized by him in 1831. In 1836 he was appointed assistant missionary at Lublin, where he preached the Gospel to his own relations, one of whom, a thriving medical doctor of the same name, confessed Christ and was baptized with his four children in 1845, and his wife later, in 1849.


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