The presentation material in this seminar is copyrighted by AgileDigm, Incorporated, 2010. For further information, please contact

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The presentation material in this seminar is copyrighted by AgileDigm, Incorporated, 2010. For further information, please contact:

  • The presentation material in this seminar is copyrighted by AgileDigm, Incorporated, 2010. For further information, please contact:

      • AgileDigm, Inc.

      • 11 Twelve Oaks Trail

      • Ormond Beach, Florida 32174 U.S.A.

      • Phone: +1.386.673.1384

      • Email: info@agiledigm.com

  • Terms like these are often used in the following material:

  • CMMI

      • SCAMPIsm and SCAMPI Lead Appraisersm

  •  CMMI is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.

  • SM SCAMPI and SCAMPI Lead Appraiser are service marks of Carnegie Mellon University.



AgileDigm, Incorporated

is a US based corporation working with organizations around the world
  • AgileDigm, Incorporated

    is a US based corporation working with organizations around the world
    • providing consulting, training, and appraisals for organizations that build software-intensive systems
    • Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Partner
    • Scrum Training Institute (STI) Partner
  • Authors of

    Interpreting the CMMI

    , best selling book on using the CMMI.
  • Unique experience working with one of the only CMMI Maturity Level 5 Agile companies.



CMMI is an acronym for Capability Maturity Model Integration.

  • CMMI is an acronym for Capability Maturity Model Integration.

  • Approach used by organizations to improve.

  • CMMI is a collection of best practices

    • Over 100 organizations formally assisted in its development, including NASA
  • There is a wide range of freedom in how an organization decides to embrace the CMMI. You can –

    • Go slow or fast
    • Choose the areas you need to focus on
    • Choose the appraisal mode you are comfortable with (SCAMPI - A,B,C, High Maturity)


CMMI for Development

  • CMMI for Development

    • Development and maintenance of products

    • Integrates software engineering, systems engineering, collaborative teams, acquisition from the supplier’s side

    • Not just for software development!

    • Can be used for developing complex systems (healthcare, bridges, valves, cleanroom technology)

  • CMMI for Services

    • Organizations that provide services (from taxis to call centers)
  • CMMI for Acquisition

    • Acquiring products and services
  • Common Process Areas are embedded within all three

  • This presentation focuses on CMMI for Development.



What the CMMI is not:

  • What the CMMI is not:

    • CMMI is not a process, standard, directive, regulation, or description.
    • Not a list of “Shalls” that might require big changes in how you do your work.
  • You can make the CMMI in your organization as intrusive and painful as you want --- OR NOT! It’s up to you.



NO!

  • NO!

  • The CMMI documents best practices from many organizations.

  • The CMMI describes WHAT to do, not HOW to do it.

  • Organizations need to determine how to apply the best practices of the CMMI to how the organization works in order to improve how stuff gets done.



Structures the effort (Where do I start? How do I know when I am done?)

    • Structures the effort (Where do I start? How do I know when I am done?)
    • Helps identify an organization’s improvement objectives and priorities
    • Provides benefit from a larger community’s experience
    • Has an an appraisal methodology to diagnose the state of improvement efforts.


CMMI focuses on “Process”

  • CMMI focuses on “Process”

  • A process is a set of practices performed to achieve a given purpose (from CMMI Glossary)

  • Four major elements of process are tools, methods, materials, and people

    • Major determinants of product cost, schedule, and quality are tools, methods, materials, and people.


Cost metrics (and reductions in cost) defined as:

  • Cost metrics (and reductions in cost) defined as:

    • Cost of delivery – Cost of quality/Cost of poor quality
    • Overhead rate – Costs of rework/Defect find & fix cost
    • Software unit costs – Number/Cost of process staff
    • Variation in cost performance index (CPI)
  • Organizations have reported improved

    • Budget estimation accuracy
    • Average in cost performance index (CPI)


Schedule metrics (and reductions) defined as:

  • Schedule metrics (and reductions) defined as:

    • Variation in schedule – Schedule performance index (SPI)
    • Number of days late – Days variance from plan
    • Slippage of project delivery
  • Organizations have reported improved or increased

    • Cycle time – Proportion of milestones met
    • Average SPI – Estimation accuracy
  • Example from NCR Corporation (on next slide)

    • Average days schedule variance reduced from approximately 130 days to less than 20 days one year after reaching CMMI maturity level 2


Productivity measures (and improvements) defined as:

  • Productivity measures (and improvements) defined as:

    • Time comparisons by build – Source statements per month
    • Lines of code per labor hour – Number of releases per year
    • Testing rates – Software production
    • Function points (FP) per full time equivalent (FTE) staff
  • Example from IBM Australia (on next slide)

    • Over 20 percent improvement in account productivity as the organization moved from SW-CMM maturity level 3 toward CMMI maturity level 5.


“Quality” most frequently defined as reductions in numbers of defects.

  • “Quality” most frequently defined as reductions in numbers of defects.

  • Measurements include:

    • Defect counts by phase of injection
    • Defect counts by phase of discovery
    • Total defect density
  • Example from IBM Australia (on next slide)

    • 40 percent reduction in overall production and over 80 percent reduction in Severity 1 problems, as the organization moved from SW-CMM maturity level 3 toward CMMI maturity level 5


Customer satisfaction most frequently defined by the results of customer surveys.

  • Customer satisfaction most frequently defined by the results of customer surveys.

    • Award fees are sometimes used as surrogate measures.
  • An example from Lockheed Martin Management and Data Systems

    • Increased award fees by 55 percent


ROI defined by cost avoidance measures and improvements including:

  • ROI defined by cost avoidance measures and improvements including:

    • Rework avoided due to fewer defects
    • Improved productivity
    • Increased revenue due to shorter cycle times
  • Example from Raytheon Corporation, anonymous site

    • 6:1 ROI in a CMMI maturity level 3 organization


Ensuring I am working on the latest (correct) version of the code

  • Ensuring I am working on the latest (correct) version of the code

  • Running tests that prove requirements are satisfied (not that the system is just not blowing up)

  • Predicting the number of projects to start up and the number of people I need ahead of time

  • Increasing communication throughout the organization (and hearing things I sometimes did not want to hear)

  • Not making phone calls to my QA person while she was in labor.



CMMI is a collection of best practices

  • CMMI is a collection of best practices

    • These “best practices” reside in 22 focus areas called “Process Areas.”
    • Each process area has specifically stated goals that have to be met in order to have “maturity” or “capability” in the process area.
    • Each process area has specific practices, subpractices, typical work products (outputs), examples, and other informative material
    • Most of the goals are specific to the process area, but there are some generic or “global” goals that are common to all of the Process Areas like:
      • Provide Resources for this area
      • Train People for this area
      • Identify Stakeholders for this area


Maturity Level or Capability Level

  • Maturity Level or Capability Level

    • Specific and Generic Goals
      • Specific and Generic Practices
        • Subpractices, Typical Work Products, Examples
  • Two types of Goals and Practices

    • We will see these examples in the Example Process Area ☺
    • Specific Goals pertain to one Process Area (SG1 in Project Planning is “Establish Estimates”)
    • Specific Goals have associated Specific Practices (For SG1 above, SP 1.4 is Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost
    • There are also Generic Goals and Generic Practices that pertain to all of the Process areas throughout the model. They are “Global.”


Decision Analysis and Resolution

  • Decision Analysis and Resolution

  • The purpose of Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria.

  • The CMMI then continues with half a page of Introductory Notes that further describe what this Process Area is about.

  • Note: Underlines and emphasis added by the presenter here and in the following slides. I have omitted some of the Informative Material.

  • Informative material is very useful in interpreting the intent of the process area/practice/subpractice and should not be ignored.



SG1: Evaluate Alternatives

  • SG1: Evaluate Alternatives

    • SP1.1 Establish Guidelines for Decision Analysis
    • SP1.2 Establish Evaluation Criteria
    • SP1.3 Identify Alternative Solutions
    • SP1.4 Select Evaluation Methods ***
    • SP1.5 Evaluate Alternatives
    • SP1.6 Select Solutions
  • Note: Other Process Areas may have more Specific Goals and more Specific Practices. There is more informative material presented in the book.

  • ***This is the practice used in the following example.



SP 1.4 Select the Evaluation Methods

  • SP 1.4 Select the Evaluation Methods

  • Typical Work Products:

  • 1. Selected evaluation methods

  • Subpractices

  • 1. Select the methods based on the purpose for analyzing a decision and on the availability of the information used to support the method.

  • Typical evaluation methods include the following:

    • Modeling and simulation
    • Engineering studies
    • Manufacturing studies
    • Cost studies
    • Business opportunity studies


Surveys

    • Surveys
    • Extrapolations based on field experience and prototypes
    • User review and comment
    • Testing
    • Judgment provided by an expert or group of experts
  • 2. Select evaluation methods based on their ability to focus on the issues at hand without being overly influenced by side issues.

  • 3. Determine the measures needed to support the evaluation method.

    • Consider the impact on cost, schedule, performance, and risks.


Staged Representation (or “View”):

  • Staged Representation (or “View”):

    • Most like other currently accepted models
    • Focuses on all process areas contained within a level
    • Used for Maturity Level ratings for contract awards
    • Start with any Process Area within a level.
  • Continuous Representation (or “View”):

    • Was designed to focus on specific, individual process areas
    • Process areas are arranged into functional categories
    • Start with any Process Area.
  • Staged is the most “popular” CMMI representation.

    • When your customers ask for a level or when an organization says “We are Level N”, they are referring to a Maturity Level of the staged representation.


The information contained is the same in both!

  • The information contained is the same in both!

  • The only difference is in your approach for implementation and appraisal.



SCAMPIsm – Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement

  • SCAMPIsm – Standard CMMI Appraisal Method for Process Improvement

    • Used for baselining current behaviors to begin improvement activities or see into ongoing improvement activities
    • To assign a formal rating for contract award or fees (if requested by appraisal sponsor)
    • Several appraisal methods (class A, B, C, plus High Maturity)
    • Uses the CMMI as reference model.
  • SCAMPI goal is to provide an accurate picture of your organization relative to the reference model.



The percentage of organizations at each maturity level based on most recent appraisals of 2753 organizations.

  • The percentage of organizations at each maturity level based on most recent appraisals of 2753 organizations.



Minimum team size is four - A Lead Appraiser and three additional team members.

  • Minimum team size is four - A Lead Appraiser and three additional team members.

  • At least one team member must be from the appraised organization.

  • All team members must be trained in the official CMMI and SCAMPI courses

  • Conflicts of interest must be avoided

    • Exclude process authors and individuals directly impacted by the outcome of the appraisal
  • Team members cannot be managers of any of the selected projects or groups

  • Appraisal sponsors cannot be team members.



Reviews an organization’s documentation

  • Reviews an organization’s documentation

    • Processes, procedures, policies, status reports, meeting minutes
  • Conducts interviews

    • To ensure the documentation is actually used
  • Maps results to the CMMI

    • Practices, Goals, Process Areas
  • Assigns ratings (if requested and allowed by the type of SCAMPI).



Does not go looking for the documentation

  • Does not go looking for the documentation

    • Easter egg hunts are not allowed!
  • Does not judge the “goodness” of the process

  • Does not judge how well you are doing your job.



Do you have a (documented) process?

  • Do you have a (documented) process?

  • Do you follow it?

  • How closely does it map to the CMMI?



Organizations can and have benefited from using the CMMI.

  • Organizations can and have benefited from using the CMMI.

  • Implement the CMMI to support your organization’s business objectives, goals, and culture.

  • “Engage your brain.” Interpretation of the information must be used.

  • Do not ignore the informative information and the subpractices. They help to understand the intent of the practice or Process Area.

  • Use a SCAMPI to guide your implementation, measure your progress, and verify your achievements.



My favorite websites for more information:

  • My favorite websites for more information:

    • www.sei.cmu.edu (main SEI website)
    • seir.sei.cmu.edu (contains helpful presentations and articles from the community)


Time for some questions?

  • Time for some questions?



Margaret Kulpa

  • Margaret Kulpa

  • Chief Operating Officer

  • AgileDigm, Inc.

  • 11 Twelve Oaks Trail

  • Ormond Beach, FL 32174 USA

  • +1 386 673 1384

  • Margaret.kulpa@agiledigm.com

  • www.agiledigm.com



A maturity level signifies the level of performance that can be expected from an organization. There are 5 maturity levels. Following are the key features of each maturity level (ML):

  • A maturity level signifies the level of performance that can be expected from an organization. There are 5 maturity levels. Following are the key features of each maturity level (ML):

    • ML 1 (Initial) – ad hoc processes
    • ML 2 (Managed) – basic project management system
    • ML 3 (Defined) – process standardization
    • ML 4 (Quantitatively Managed) – quantitative management “by the numbers”
    • ML 5 (Optimizing) – continuous process improvement


SCAMPI appraisals require an appraisal sponsor.

  • SCAMPI appraisals require an appraisal sponsor.

    • Usually this is a senior manager.
    • The appraisal sponsor is responsible for
      • Verifying that the appraisal team leader has the appropriate experience, knowledge, and skills to lead the appraisal.
      • Ensuring that the appropriate organizational units (projects and support) participate in the appraisal.
      • Supporting the required confidentiality and non-attribution rules.
    • Some appraisals have multiple sponsors.


Chief Operating Officer of AgileDigm, Incorporated

  • Chief Operating Officer of AgileDigm, Incorporated

  • She is the primary author of the book Interpreting the CMMI: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition, Auerbach (2008) which details how to identify, define, and improve business, systems and software processes on both enterprise-wide and project levels.


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