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The Petiole - Critical revision of the genus eucalyptus Volume 6: Parts 51-60


The Petiole. 



a. Its presence. 

   Once  more  we  have  to  deal with variables. For example, it is probable that in 

some cases quoted the record “Slightly petiolate” will, with further experience, turn 

out to be “Sessile.” The tendency is for the records of petioles to indicate 

diminished length in juvenile leaves as we get to know more about them, and, as 

regards the truly petiolate ones, for us to find that the petioles become increased in 

length. In some cases, the same species may appear in more than one list.  

   We, therefore, in this particular enumeration, can only take cognisance of those 

juvenile leaves which are—  

 

1. Slightly petiolate.  



2. Petiolate.  

3. Petiolate very long, and, as an exceptional case,  

4. Peltate.  

   1. SLIGHTLY PETIOLATE.  



     

E. acmenioides.

E. corymbosa.

E. affinis.

E. crebra.

E. agglomerata.

E. Culleni.

E. alba.

E. dealbata.

E. alpina.

E. Deanei.

E. altior.

E. decipiens.

E. amplifolia.

E. decorticans.

E. apiculata.

E. diversicolor.

E. approximans.

E. dumosa.

E. Baileyana.

E. erythrocorys.

E. de Beuzevillei.

E. erythronema.

E. Beyeri.

E. Ewartiana.

E. bicolor.

E. exserta.

E. Blaxlandi.

E. falcata.

E. Boormani.

E. fasciculosa.

E. Bosistoana.

E. ficifolia.

E. botryoides.

E. foecunda.

E. calophylla.

E. fruticetorum.

E. calycogona.

E. gigantea.

E. calycogona var. gracilis. E. Guilfoylei.

E. celastroides.

E. hoemastoma.

E. cinerea.

E. haematoxylon.

E. Cloeziana.

E. intertexta.

E. cneorifolia.

E. Kitsoniana.

E. Consideniana.

E. Laseroni.

E. cornuta.

E. Lane-Poolei.

E. Lehmanni.

E. pyrophora.

E. leptopoda.

E. Raveretiana.

E. macrandra.

E. redunca.

E. maculata.

E. regnans.

E. maculosa.

E. resinifera.

E. Maideni.

E. robusta.

E. megacarpa.

E. Rudderi.

E. melliodora.

E. saligna.

E. microcorys.

E. salmonophloia.

E. microtheca.

E. salubris.

E. miniata.

E. scoparia.

E. Morrisii.

E. siderophloia.

E. Mundijongensis.

E. sideroxylon.

E. Naudiniana.

E. Sieberiana.

E. Normantonensis.

E. Le Souefi.

E. obliqua.

E. squamosa.

E. occidentalis.

E. Staigeriana.

E. oleosa.

E. striaticalyx.

E. pachyloma.

E. stricta.

E. papuana.

E. terminalis.

E. paniculata.

E. tessellaris.

   2. PETIOLATE.  

     


E. Parramattensis.

E. tetragona.

E. pellita.

E. tetrodonta.

E. Pilligaensis.

E. Thozetiana.

E. piperita.

E. Todtiana.

E. platypus.

E. Torelliana.

E. Preissiana.

E. torquata.

E. propinqua.

E. trachyphloia.

E. pumila.

E. virgata.

E. pyriformis.

E. Websteriana.

E. accedens.

E. Beyeri.

E. affinis.

E. bicolor.

E. alba.

E. Blakelyi.

E. amplifolia.

E. Boormani.

E. Andrewsi.

E. Bosistoana.

E. Bancrofti.

E. botryoides.

E. Banksii.

E. Brownii.

E. Baueriana.

E. buprestium.

E. Behriana.

E. Caleyi.

E. de Beuzevillei.

E. calycogona.

E. Cambageana.

E. miniata.

E. Campaspe.

E. Morrisii.

E. canaliculata.

E. Mundijongensis.

E. cladocalyx.

E. notabilis.

E. Clelandi.

E. obliqua.

E. conica.

E. odorata.

E. cornuta.

E. Oldfieldii.

E. corymbosa.

E. oligantha.

E. cosmophylla.

E. pachyphylla.

E. Dawsoni.

E. pallidifolia.

E. dealbata.

E. peltata.

E. diversicolor.

E. Penrithensis.

E. drepanophylla.

E. Planchoniana.

E. Drummondi.

E. polyanthemos.

E. dumosa.

E. populifolia.

E. Dunnii.

E. ptychocarpa.

E. erythrocorys.

E. punctata.

E. eximia.

E. pyriformis var. Kingsmilli.

E. falcata.

E. rariflora.

E. foecunda.

E. robusta.

E. Foelscheana.

E. rostrata.

E. Forrestiana.

E. Rudderi.

   3. PETIOLE VERY LONG.  

     


   4. PELTATE LEAF.  

   A very few at that age (what Bentham calls “sapling leaves”) especially in the 

Corymbosae series, appear to be already alternate, but have the lamina peltately 

inserted on the petiole above the base, but our data on that point are but very scanty. 

(B.Fl. iii, 187.)  

   The petiole is a continuation of the midrib, and in peltate leaves the base of the 

leaf is extended below the point of insertion of the petiole into the leaf.  

   The remarks of Mueller in “Eucalyptographia” on the peltate leaf are chiefly 

based on E. peltata, a species which, at Part XLII, p. 33, I have shown to have been 

erroneously understood by him as regards its mature leaves. Bentham followed 

Mueller's earlier description of E. peltata as regards the supposed peltateness of the 

mature foliage.  

   Then Naudin has some remarks on the subject, translated herewith:—  

    . . . These are not the only modifications of the foliage in Eucalyptus. There are 

some species in the group, which in opposition to the preceding can be called 

Uniform, in which the primordial leaves, alternate and petiolate, are really peltate by 

reason of the insertion of the petiole at a certain distance from the base of the leaf. 



E. gigantea.

E. rudis.

E. gomphocephala. E. saligna.

E. gracilis.

E. salmonophloia.

E. grandifolia.

E. Seeana.

E. Griffithsii.

E. similis.

E. Guilfoylei.

E. Le Souefii.

E. hoematoxylon.

E. Spenceriana.

E. hemiphloia.

E. squamosa.

E. Hillii (very).

E. Stowardi.

E. Jacksoni.

E. striaticalyx.

E. Kirtoniana.

E. Stricklandi.

E. loevopinea.

E. Tenandrensis.

E. latifolia.

E. tereticornis.

E. Lehmanni.

E. terminalis.

E. longifolia.

E. tetraptera.

E. macrandra.

E. tetrodonta.

E. marginata.

E. virgata.

E. melliodora.

E. Watsoniana.

E. microcorys.

E. Woodwardi.

E. Foelscheana. E. populifolia.

E. Hillii.

E. rariflora.

This character is not very constant, for in the same species one finds species which 

have it and other which have not. Besides, it does not generally affect more than the 

first five or six first leaves, sometimes also a large number. But if it is transitory in 

these species, it becomes permanent in others; it is at least the case of E. peltata, 

whose leaves remain peltate during the whole life of the tree. (Naudin, 1st Mem., 

347.)  


   A few years later, Naudin wrote:—  

   There is finally a last peculiarity, the way in which the petiole is inserted on the 

blade. In the great majority of species this insertion takes place at the very base of 

the blade, as in our native (French) trees, but there is a small number of them in 

which it occurs a little below the insertion of the petiole. The result is what is called 

peltate leaves. This modification is always limited to the juvenile stage, except in 

one species, E. peltata, in which this character becomes permanent. (Naudin, ii, 

1'0.)  


   In ii, 16, Naudin adds citriodora, maculata, and calophylla as having peltate 

leaves. He is referring to very young leaves. No species has peltate leaves 

throughout the whole life of the species; the mistake, as regards E. peltata, 

originated with Mueller, and has already been dealt with.  

   So far as I have seen, the peltate leaves preponderatingly belong to the 

Corymbosae. Those that I have seen are, and no doubt peltateness will be found in 

others:—  

     


   In addition, we have E. erythrocorys (belonging to the allied Eudesmieae), and 

others should be searched for.  

            b. 

Its absence.

  

 

1.

 Sessile.  



2.

 Stem-clasping, i.e., with expansions of the lobes of the leaf.  

2

a. Stem-clasping and crowded.  

   1. SESSILE.  

   It will be seen at once, on examination of a sessile leaf, say E. Gunnii, fig. 6a, 

Plate 108, Part XXVI, that the bases of the two leaves touch the stem.  

   It must be understood that, in dealing with juvenile leaves, their insertion on the 

plant involves—  



E. calophylla. E. peltata.

E. eximia.

E. Torelliana.

E. ficifolia.

E. trachyphloia.

E. maculata.

 

(a) Petiole (or absence of it).  

(b) The common axis or stem, not the petiole.  

   The following leaves are sessile, or practically so:—  

     

   2. STEM-CLASPING.  



   In other words, we have basal expansions of the lobes of the leaves. The bases, in 

connection with an appropriate shape of the leaf, gives us a cordate leaf, and the 

stem-clasping leaf itself is often termed amplexicaul. At p. 291, under “Shape,” they 

are separately classified under broad and narrow. In the list which follows, those 

inclined to be narrow are indicated by (N).  

     


E. acacioeformis.

E. Muelleriana.

E. acacioides.

E. obtusiflora.

E. aggregata.

E. ochrophloia.

E. amygdalina.

E. odontocarpa.

E. angophoroides. E. odorata.

E. apiculata.

E. oleosa.

E. approximans.

E. pachyloma.

E. Baeuerleni.

E. proecox.

E. Bakeri.

E. pyrophora.

E. capitellata.

E. regnans.

E. dichromophloia. E. resinifera.

E. doratoxylon.

E. scoparia.

E. eugenioides.

E. Smithii.

E. fruticetorum.

E. spathulata.

E. Kybeanensis.

E. tetragona.

E. loevopinea.

E. transcontinentalis.

E. ligustrina.

E. umbra.

E. lineans.

E. uncinata.

E. longicornis.

E. vernicosa.

E. macrorrhyncha. E. vitrea.

E. megacarpa.

E. Websteriana.

E. Moorei.

E. accedens.

E. melanophloia.

E. acmenioides.

E. Mooreana.

E. angophoroides. E. Muelleri.

E. Benthami (N).

E. neglecta.

E. de Beuzevillei.

E. nitens (N).

E. Camfieldi.

E. nitida.

E. capitellata.

E. nova-anglica.

            2a. STEM-CLASPING AND CROWDED.  

   This sub-head may prove convenient for purposes of rough classification.  

     

            

Connate or Perfoliate.

  



   This is a question of fusion of two leaves by their bases, around a common axis or 

stem, not petiole.  

   It even happens in a small number of Eucalypts, that these opposite (i.e., sessile 

and opposite during a long period of the youth of the tree) leaves unite by their base 

and become what is called connate, forming then a single piece, which is traversed 

through its centre by the stem or the branch. This new disposition of the foliage is 

sometimes transitory, as in E. Risdoni, sometimes permanent as in E. gamophylla, 

E. perfoliata, and perhaps some others. (Naudin, 1st Mem., 347.)  

E. cinerea.

E. numerosa (N)

E. clavigera.

E. ovata.

E. coccifera.

E. parvifolia.

E. cordata.

E. patens.

E. coriacea.

E. Perriniana.

E. Dalrympleana.

E. pilularis.

E. decurva.

E. pilularis var. pyriformis (N).

E. dichromophloia. E. piperita.

E. diversifolia.

E. Preissiana.

E. dives.

E. pruinosa.

E. Dunnii.

E. pulverulenta.

E. eloeophora.

E. pyrophora.

E. eudesmioides.

E. quadrangulata (N).

E. eximia.

E. radiata (N).

E. ferruginea (N). E. Risdoni.

E. Gillii.

E. rubida.

E. globulus (N).

E. setosa.

E. goniocalyx (N). E. Sieberiana.

E. Gunnii.

E. Smithii (N).

E. Houseana.

E. stellulata.

E. Irbyi.

E. Stuartiana.

E. Kruseana.

E. unialata (N).

E. leucoxylon.

E. umbra.

E. Macarthuri (N). E. urnigera.

E. macrocarpa.

E. vernicosa.

E. Maideni (N).

E. viminalis (N).

E. aspera.

E. pruinosa.

E. macrocarpa. E. vernicosa.

E. Muelleri.

   Mueller in “Eucalyptographia” under E. gamophylla has a note on E. perfoliata.  

   The concrescence of the leaves by pairs in all stages of growth occurs, so far as 

known, only in E. perfoliata, if even in that rare and little known congener this 

coalescence should prove also exceptional.  

   If Plate 180, Part XLIV of the present work be referred to, it will be seen that this 

species is not perfoliate throughout life.  

   Besides those species mentioned by Naudin as showing perfoliation, we may 

include E. pulverulenta, E. Perriniana. A figure of a perfoliate leaf (E. Perriniana) 

may be seen at fig. 11, Plate 83, Part XIX (erroneously as E. cordata).  

   See fig. 1a, Plate 32, Part VI, for the connate leaves of E. Risdoni encircling the 

stem. This particular twig shows flowers and fruits, the leaves still exhibiting 

juvenility. Perfoliate leaves of E. gamophylla will be found figured on Plate 147, 

Part XXXV.  

   Scars on branches and trunks.—As growth proceeds, the rachises increase in 

diameter, and stretch the bases of the perfoliate leaves. The leaves are persistent for 

a long time, and leave circular ragged scars or fragments on the branches and on the 

main trunk, even when the latter attain several inches in diameter. This character 

seems rare in Eucalyptus. I have seen it in E. pulverulenta (see Part XXI, p. 15), but 

only in a very marked manner in E. Perriniana. It, however, probably occurs in all 

perfoliate species.  

            

Fusion of leaves by margins.

  

   We have already spoken of fusion of leaves by their bases, but we may have 

fusion taking place at other parts of their margins.  

   This  is  an  unusual  occurrence in Eucalypts; the following are the only cases 

known to me. Additional instances should be searched for:—  

   1. E. numerosa, Bega district (James Taylor, May, 1918).  

   2. E. maculosa, Blackheath (R. H. Cambage).  

   3. E. cordata. In specimens growing in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, the laminae 

are sometimes fused both basally and laterally.  

   At Part XLIX, p. 279, we have already spoken of Cohesion of Branches. This 

fusion may be referred to as “Cohesion of Leaves.”  

            

Decurrence of Leaf.

  

   When the green tissues of sessile leaf blades is continued down the stem, by 

adhesion, in the form of two green bands or wings, the leaf is said to be decurrent.  

   A marked case is rare in Eucalyptus. We have it in E. Flocktonioe, figs. 3a to 3c, 

Plate 236, Part LVIII, which is the best example known to me. It occurs also in E. 



macrocarpa, fig. 1a. Plate 77, Part XVIII.  

   The typical form is morphologically close to “stem-clasping,” and less close to 



that extreme form of quadrangularity which exhibits that type of winged stem which 

is familiar to us in E. quadrangulata and E. tetragona. In the latter species it is not 

the lobes of the leaf (or of two opposite leaves) which are concerned, but one (or 

two) flattened or expanded petioles, with no lamina.  

            

Angularity of Branchlets.

  

   A few notes may be required on some of the minor characters which I have made 

use of or neglected in the specific diagnosis and descriptions. I have thought it 

generally useless to describe the branchlets terete or angular, for in those species 

such as E. pruinosa, E. tetragona, E. tetraptera, &c., where the angles are often so 

prominent as to be almost transformed into wings, there occur branches, often on 

the same specimen, quite terete. (B.Fl. iii, 186.)  

   For  sketches  of  angular  stems of these species, see E. pruinosa (Part XII, Plate 

54);  E. tetragona (Part XLVI, Plate 188); E. tetraptera (Part XXII, Plate 94). An 

exaggerated case is that of E. quadrangulata, of which a section of the young stem 

is figured at fig. 4e, Plate 103, Part XXIV.  

   It is probably the case that some branchlets will be found to be angular in all 

species. The following are some in which I have personally observed to be marked, 

in addition to those mentioned by Bentham, and I could mention others.  

   E. globulus and its allies.—E. Maideni, E. unialata, and E. goniocalyx.  

   E. tereticornis and its allies.—E. rostrata and E. amplifolia.  

     

   In a note “On the forms of Stems of Plants” (British Association Meeting, 22nd 



August, 1904), Lord Avebury remarks: “Plants with quadrangular stems always 

have opposite leaves.” He was referring to such families as the Labiatae, but it is 

true of many Eucalypts, so far as the juvenile foliage is concerned.  

            

Texture.

  

   Their texture is very variable. In all the species there is a certain firmness, but 

with some, this firmness makes them exceptionally coriaceous. (Naudin, 2nd Mem., 

10.)  

   Mr. R. H. Cambage is one of the few botanists who has written on the subject:—  



   The thickening of the epidermis for the purpose of sheltering the stomata, is one of 

the expedients resorted to by the Eucalypts to resist evaporation, and consequently it 



E. cosmophylla. E. Planchoniana.

E. dumosa.

E. Preissiana.

E. Kybeanensis. E. propinqua.

E. macrocarpa. E. punctata.

E. neglecta.

E. Shirleyi.

E. nitens.

E. Woodwardi.

is compatible with such an endeavour, that those species having the thickest 

epidermis and of which such as E. dumosa may be taken as a type, are commonest 

in the interior. But this particular character is to be met with intermittently in all the 

four climatic divisions of New South Wales, so that it would appear that various 

species have adopted this precaution for preservative objects but from different 

causes. A dwarfed Port Jackson form of E. capitellata has remarkably thick almost 

orbicular leaves, while large normal type specimens within a few miles have 

lanceolate foliage of ordinary thickness. The thick-leaved form, however, grows in 

the more exposed positions, and in the more rocky situations with probably less 

plant-food available. It seems therefore not improbable that in order to counteract 

the effect of strong winds, to which its exposure renders it liable, and also to 

compensate in some way for the limited nourishment it obtains, that the thick-leaved 

adaptation has been evolved in this case, to preserve the starch which forms in the 

leaf and which is regarded as an auxiliary food supply. It is of interest to note that 

the thickest leaved types usually correspond with the more dwarfed forms, and 

when the same species at maturity occurs both as large and as stunted trees, it is on 

the latter that the thickest leaves are found.  

   Turning next to the Eucalypts in the cold climate, we find a similar variation in 

leaf characters. The foliage of E. Gunnii as dwarfed trees on Mount Roland in 

Tasmania at nearly 4,000 feet above sea-level, is distinctly thicker in texture than 

that of the same species around Guildford Junction at an altitude of 2,000 feet, and 

where the trees are upwards of 80 feet high.  

   The  leaves  of  E. coriacea are always somewhat leathery, as the specific name 

would imply, but in observing trees of this species from just above the 2,000-feet 

level around Goulburn upwards to the 6,000 feet level towards Kosciusko, it is 

found that with the ascent the leaves get gradually smaller and thicker, and the trees 

become dwarfed from the rigid conditions and weight of winter snow, until at last 

they appear as gnarled shrubs with interlacing branches and the now thickened 

leaves have been reduced in length from about 6 to 3 inches.  

   It therefore appears that the sub-arid conditions of the inland country, and the 

coldest effects of the mountains, though extreme in their climatic influence, have so 

operated in regard to this particular phase of leaf character as to bring about the 

same result. It is suggested, however, that the modifications of the internal structure 

of the leaves of two Eucalypts which originated before the Kosciusko uplift, and 

developed until the present time under those two extremes of climatic influence, 

would not be the same, and, although the leaves of E. coriacea at 6,000 feet have 

their counterpart in the interior at 500 feet, so far as the thickening character is 

concerned, yet in their venation they are distinct from those of all species found in 



that dry region. (Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., xlvii, 36, 1913.)  

   I quite agree with Mr. Cambage that thickness in leaves is sometimes evidence of 

lack of transpiration. The thickest leaf in Eucalyptus known to me is E. tetraptera 

(and to a less extent E. Preissiana). Both of these are denizens of a coastal region in 

south-western Australia, east of a well-watered belt. The saline winds (tending to 

xerophytic conditions) and a moderate rainfall, combine to induce this thickness of 

tissue. E. incrassata var. angulosa, very common near the sea in Western and South 

Australia, may be even succulent in texture. To mention other species which love 

the saline breezes would be to enumerate those with abnormally thick leaves. Thus 

we have E. capitellata, E. obtusiflora, and many others.  

   Cold localities (e.g., mountain-tops) also check transpiration and induce thickness; 

thus we have E. coriacea, E. alpina, E. coccifera, E. Gunnii. (These are the species 

that are included in a list of those that cattle eat in droughty times, but it must be 

borne in mind that they frequent localities not subject to great droughts. See my 

“Forest Flora of New South Wales,” Part LXX, p. 445.)  

   Conversely, we have thin leaves to facilitate transpiration, such leaves being 

always denizens of brushes, most commonly on the east coast, where the dense 

growth of the rain forests induces shelter. Very thin leaves, usually with pale 

undersides, can be found in such species as E. microcorys, E. acmenioides, E. 

umbra, E. paniculata, E. botryoides, E. saligna, and many others, the thinness being 

accentuated in the juvenile foliage. These thin leaves tend to be horizontal. See pp. 

288 and 324.  

   It is obvious that, since the texture of a leaf varies according to the ecological 

conditions of the plant, there is much variation in the records of this character.  

   The following grouping of leaves under varying degrees of thickness has a basis 

of truth in it, but must be studied in a truly philosophic spirit. These lists (as indeed 

all under Juvenile leaves) are based on examination of actual specimens).  

            Very thin.  

     


            Thin.  

     


E. Benthami.

E. latifolia.

E. Beyeri.

E. notabilis.

E. Blaxlandi.

E. rudis.

E. ficifolia.

E. tereticornis.

E. gigantea.

E. Watsoniana.

E. haematoxylon.

E. acacioides.

E. decorticans.

E. acmenioides.

E. diversicolor.

            Moderately Thin.  

     


E. alba.

E. diversifolia.

E. altior.

E. Dunnii.

E. Andrewsi.

E. elaeophora (sometimes).

E. Baueriana.

E. foecunda.

E. de Beuzevillei.

E. gigantea.

E. bicolor.

E. goniocalyx.

E. Bosistoana.

E. gracilis.

E. Cloeziana.

E. Guilfoylei.

E. coccifera.

E. Irbyi.

E. Consideniana.

E. Kirtoniana.

E. crebra.

E. Lehmanni.

E. Dalrympleana. E. linearis.

E. Dawsoni.

E. longifolia.

E. Deanei.

E. Macarthuri.

E. maculata.

E. piperita.

E. maculosa.

E. propinqua.

E. Maideni.

E. quadrangulata.

E. marginata.

E. radiata.

E. microcorys.

E. regnans.

E. Muelleri.

E. resinifera.

E. Muelleriana.

E. robusta.

E. Naudiniana.

E. Rudderi.

E. occidentalis.

E. saligna.

E. odorata.

E. Seeana.

E. paniculata.

E. Sieberiana.

E. papuana.

E. similis.

E. Parramattensis. E. Smithii.

E. patens.

E. terminalis.

E. pellita.

E. Torelliana.

E. peltata.

E. umbra.

E. Pilligaensis.

E. viminalis.

E. pilularis.

E. amygdalina.

E. Morrisii.

E. angophoroides. E. neglecta.

E. Baeuerlenii.

E. nitens.

E. Bancrofti.

E. nitida.

E. botryoides.

E. oleosa.

E. canaliculata.

E. ovata.

E. cladocalyx.

E. proecox.

E. cneorfolia.

E. punctata.

E. conica.

E. Raveretiana.

            Somewhat Thick or Thickish.  

     


E. cornuta.

E. rostrata.

E. Culleni.

E. rubida.

E. dives.

E. salmonophloia.

E. elaeophora.

E. setosa.

E. fraxinoides.

E. sideroxylon.

E. globulus.

E. Spenceriana.

E. gomphocephala. E. Staigeriana.

E. grandifolia.

E. Stuartiana.

E. Jacksoni.

E. tessellaris.

E. laevopinea.

E. tetrodonta.

E. megacarpa.

E. Thozetiana.

E. melliodora.

E. unialata.

E. miniata.

E. affinis.

E. leptophleba.

E. amplifolia.

E. leucoxylon.

E. angustissima. E. longicornis.

E. annulata.

E. melanophloia.

E. apiculata.

E. Moorei.

E. approximans. E. Normantonensis.

E. Banksii.

E. odontocarpa.

E. Behriana.

E. pachyloma.

E. Blakelyi.

E. parvifolia.

E. Boormani.

E. Perriniana.

E. calophylla.

E. Planchoniana.

E. Campaspe.

E. polyanthemos.

E. celastroides.

E. populifolia.

E. Cooperiana.

E. pulverulenta.

E. cordata.

E. pumila.

E. cosmophylla.

E. pyrophora.

E. crebra.

E. Risdoni.

E. dealbata.

E. salubris.

E. drepanophylla. E. spathulata.

E. Drummondii. E. squamosa.

E. elaeophora.

E. Stowardi.

E. erythrocorys. E. Stricklandi.

E. falcata.

E. stricta.

E. fasciculosa.

E. tetragona.

E. fruticetorum.

E. Todtiana.

E. gamophylla.

E. torquata.

E. gigantea.

E. transcontinentalis.

E. Gillii.

E. uncinata.

            Thick.  

     


            Very Thick.  

     

?


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